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would be spiked with perdeuterated PAH internal standards after the addition of the methanolic/KOH (4). GC-MS can be performed on a Hewlett-Packard 6890 series II gas chromatograph system (Hewlett-Packard) interfaced with a 5973 series mass selective detector or equivalent. Separation is typically performed on a Supelco SPB (Sigma-Aldrich) column (25 m 0.20 mm) heated to 250 C. Helium gas is used as carrier and at the MS interface ionization is by electron impact. MS analysis is performed by selected ion monitoring (SIM). The molecular ion (M +) of each PAH is used as the target ion for selection, and peak identity and purity is established by the detection of a quali er ion (M-H2) + and (M-D2) + for the internal standard. Analyte identity is established by the ratio of the target ion to the quali er ion. Quantitation is achieved by the use of calibration curves. Using GC-MS, the lower LOD is approximately 0.2 g/kg and the lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.6 g/kg (4). These limits should be kept in mind when reviewing the PAH contents in food listed in Table 2.8.2.
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Grilling (broiling) meat, sh, and other foods over intense heat or by direct contact with ames results in the formation of PAHs, which adhere to the surface of foods. These PAHs are formed by condensation of smaller organic compounds by either pyrolysis or pyrosynthesis. At high temperatures, organic compounds are easily fragmented (pyrolysis) and the free radicals produced recombine to form stable polynuclear aromatic compounds (pyrosynthesis). A common reaction may involve Diels Alder-type rearrangements to yield the PAH. The importance of pyrolysis is borne out by the temperature at which cooking occurs. At low temperatures of less than 400 C, only small amounts of PAHs are formed, but between 400 and 1000 C, the amounts of PAHs formed increase linearly with temperature. Temperature affects both the structure and diversity of the PAH formed (79). The PAH content in the smoke from heating model lipids and food lipids was quantitated by GC-MS. All 16 priority PAHs could be detected, and it was found that methyl linolenate produced the highest amount of PAHs, followed by methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, and methyl stearate (79).
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Because the exposure to PAHs is ubiquitous, it is impossible to mitigate effective reduction from all sources. However, knowing the process by which food is contaminated with PAHs can provide recommendations on how to reduce these concentrations. Fruits and vegetables grown in contaminated soil should be thoroughly washed and cleaned of all debris before consumption. Formation of PAHs during the cooking of food can be reduced if excess fat is
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trimmed from meat and the meat is cooked at lower temperatures and at a distance from charcoal when this is used in broiling. Similarly, cooking and smoking foods using wood res can lead to highly variable amounts of PAHs depending on the wood used as fuel. Hard woods such as oak and hickory, burn cleanly, while woods such as mesquite generate large quantities of PAHs. When cooking on open log res, it is recommended that the embers be used. Elimination of PAHs from packaging can be achieved by using cellulose-based wrapping. An unexpected nding was that LSF can be absorbed by low-density polyethylene. Incubation of PAHs in LSF for 14 days in low-density polyethylene followed by extraction showed that the amount of PAHs that could be recovered fell by two orders of magnitude. The most intense absorption occurs in the rst 24-h period (7). Two physiochemical principles determine the outcome, surface absorption, and diffusion into the plastic bulk. The diffusion coef cients for PAH are uoranthene > pyrene > B[a]P. In a side-by-side comparison, polyethylene terephthalate was found to be less effective in absorbing PAHs (7). It is recommended that packaging of smoked food in low-density polyethylene could be an effective remediation strategy (7).
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