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examine how these are organized. It may be that you can use this information with your own project.
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IDENTIFYING THE UNITS
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Each project will be different, there will be different stories, different programming languages used, different operating environments, and so on. Furthermore, the programming courses that have been taken may have approached the issue of breaking down a high-level story requirement into bite-sized pieces of code in different ways. It is therefore impossible to provide a de nitive method that will enable the programmers to create a framework of units, classes within which the programming can be set. One approach is to take a story and to try to identify a series of chunks of functionality or tasks that need to be de ned and that could form the basis of some suitable units. Consider the following story (Figs. 8.1 and 8.2). It is concerned with a system, Quizmaster, which allows the user to set up quizzes on a variety of different topics; these quizzes can then be provided online to people taking the quizzes. The story begins with the task of requesting an option by clicking on a screen button. The list of papers should be displayed and one chosen. The next task is to display a suitable window with simple edit facilities to allow the user to input some simple text, namely the topic name for a paper. The information supplied needs to be validated. In this case, is the same topic already declared on this paper This will involve a query to the database. The functional tests de ned on the card provide guidance as to the checking required. Be prepared, however, to identify other things that may need to be considered,
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Figure 8.1 Add topic story card.
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8.2 Identifying the Units
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Figure 8.2 The reverse of the add topic story card.
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there is no guarantee that all the special and awkward cases have been identi ed at this stage. Always try to think What if. If the validation fails, then a warning message should be given and a repeat try of the previous task enabled. Finally, con rmation should be given to the user that the operations were successful. These tasks can then be the basis for a series of units that will provide the functionality required. If an object-oriented language such as Java is being used, then it should be possible to de ne a simple set of class diagrams that will contain the main class outlines, variables, attributes, and outline methods. We will need to build a database model that will have a class to handle data access functions. Recalling what we said about keeping the user interface, the business rules and the database as separate layers, we should organize our classes to respect that principle (Fig. 8.3). There will be a screen class to provide the initial user interface for the start of the story, which we will call the homescreen. The button will be provided with an adaptor/listener method to enable the story to be started.
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Figure 8.3 A classic three-layer architecture (see Fig. 6.2).
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Figure 8.4 Some screens and their relationships.
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Class homescreen will handle this. The button click will cause an event that calls the addtopic, a class that provides the basic interface for this story. Thus a new object will be created giving a screen with edit facilities. This will include a button for data submission together with checking and recovery methods. To capture and report data entry errors, an error class is included (Fig 8.4). The topicscreen class will need information from the database, so a table class is used. The row class will write to the database. The results will be displayed in a list box using a suitable component by the addtopic class.
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Figure 8.5 Some classes involved in the story.
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8.3 Unit Testing
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Figure 8.6 Task sequences, classes, and their interactions.
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Figure 8.5 illustrates a possible collection of classes for this story, displayed as Class Responsibility Collaborator (CRC) cards (Cunningham, ), and Fig. 8.6 shows how the three layers are organized.
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