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again has no notion of their meaning or relationship to other pieces of data. Fundamentally, most of the hard work is left to the human user who must interpret the descriptions provided to the best of his or her abilities. Services can be described semantically by relating them to ontologies. Ontologies provide a shared view of a domain that can be interpreted by machines. Thus ontologies can describe kinds of services, the data they consume and provide, the processes that services are part of and, equally importantly, the relationships between all of the above. The explicit relationship between services and ontologies is the key element for Semantic Web Services. It is envisaged that this will enable:  Improved service discovery: Semantic Web search technology allows users to search on ontological concepts rather than by keywords. A simple keyword search only nds where a particular term occurs, and does not give details about its context or relationship to other information. Ontological searches utilise the structured way that information is modelled to allow more powerful searches, such as the ability to query attributes or relationships between concepts. This will allow users (and indeed computers) to nd the most appropriate services more quickly or narrow down their search via more expressive queries if required.  Re-use of service interfaces in different products/settings: Services that are described semantically can more easily be discovered, understood and applied thus reducing the need to create new services that serve the same purpose. This could also be used in a strategy to reduce complexity, that is remove services/interfaces that exactly repeat the function of other services but are described slightly differently.  Simpler change management: Changes to models and services are inevitable over time. The key thing is to reduce the knock-on effect of change or at least manage it. A semantic approach will signi cantly reduce the overhead and simplify the process. For example, when a proposed change is made to a data element, those services or interfaces that employ that data in some way can be dynamically discovered and appropriate action could be taken, for example to contact the owner of the service with details of the proposed change.  A browseable, searchable knowledge base for developers (and others): In tandem with the example given above for simpler change management, semantically described services and ontologies enable a knowledge base to be constructed. This allows developers and solution providers to perform queries relating to the data and processes they are concerned with, for example to determine the origin or destination of a piece of data.  Semi-automatic service composition: Given a high level goal which we wish a service or set of services to achieve, expressed in terms of an ontology, it is possible to carry out decomposition into component parts and then match these components with appropriate services. The
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level of automation possible is a matter for ongoing research. Initial practical results are likely to provide users with a set of candidate services that might satisfy their needs. They are then left to decide between these services and oversee the composition required in order to satisfy the goal.  Mediation between the data and process requirements of component services: Often there is need for two or more services to interact even though their communication requirements are semantically the same but syntactically different (they may require different message exchange patterns or different data formats). In this case it should be possible to automatically construct a translation between message data elements that allows the services to communicate. This is an example of a process known as mediation, which is discussed in more detail in the next section. It relies upon the mappings of messages and data elements to an ontology allowing semantic equivalence to be inferred.  Enterprise Information Integration: As the name suggests, the Semantic Web builds upon existing Web technology. This can afford universal (or at least enterprise-wide) access to semantic descriptions of services (or information). One advantage is the ability to construct complex queries which can be executed over a variety of heterogeneous systems. For example, suppose there is a requirement to determine the number of customers within a particular postcode who spend more than 100 per quarter. If that information is held within one database and the person asking has access to it and knows how to query it then an answer could readily be obtained. Of course the situation is more complex if multiple databases hold the answer and access and a query interface have to be determined. The humans involved have some work to do in locating the data and processing it in the required way. A semantic approach, however, allows a single query to be made via a unifying ontology.
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