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SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES APPROACHES AND PERSPECTIVES
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10.8. CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
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Semantic Web Services constitute one of the most promising research directions to improve the integration of applications within and across enterprise boundaries. In this context, we provided in this chapter an overview of the most important approaches to SWS and pointed out the main concepts that they de ne. Although a detailed comparison of all the approaches is out of scope of this chapter, we argue that, in order for SWS to succeed, a fully edged framework needs to be provided: starting with a conceptual model, continuing with a formal language to provides formal syntax and semantics (based on different logics in order to provide different levels of logical expressiveness) for the conceptual model, and ending with an execution environment that glue all the components that use the language for performing various tasks that would eventually enable automation of service. Amongst the presented approaches, only the WSMO Approach tackles, in a unifying manner, all the aspects of such a framework, and potentially provides the conceptual basis and the technical means to realize Semantic Web Services: it de nes a conceptual model (WSMO) for de ning the basic concepts of Semantic Web Services, a formal language (WSML) which provides a formal syntax and semantics for WSMO by offering different variants based on different logics in order to provide different levels of logical expressiveness (thus allowing different trade offs between expressivity and computability), and an execution environment (WSMX) which provides a reference implementation for WSMO and interoperation of Semantic Web Services. The OWL-S Approach is based on OWL; OWL was not developed with the design rationale in mind to de ne the semantics of processes that require rich de nitions of their functionality, thus inherently limiting the expressivity of OWL-S. WSMO/WSML tries to overcome this limitation by providing different layers of expressivity, thus allowing rich de nitions of Web services. Moreover, OWL-S inherits some of the drawbacks of OWL (de Brujin, 2005a): lack of proper layering between RDFS and the less expressive species of OWL, and the lack of proper layering between OWL DL and OWL Lite on the one side and OWL Full on the other. OWL-S provides the choice between several other languages, for example, SWRL, KIF, etc. By leaving the choice of the language to be used to the user, OWL-S contributes to the interoperability problem rather than solving it. In OWL-S, the interaction between the inputs and outputs, which have been speci ed as OWL classes and the logical expressions in the respective languages, is not clear. OWL-S does not make any explicit distinction between Web service communication and cooperation. WSMO makes this distinctions in terms of Web service choreography and orchestration, thus apply the principle of separation of concerns between communication and cooperation, and making the conceptual modeling more clear. OWL-S does not explicitly consider
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CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
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the heterogeneity problem in the language itself, treating it as an architectural issue, that is, mediators are not an element of the ontology but repart of the underlying Web service infrastructure. WSML provides an integrated language framework for the description of both the ontologies and the services. Furthermore, the logical language used for the speci cation of Web Service preconditions and postconditions is an integral part of the language, thus the overall web service description and the logical expressions which specify the pre- and postconditions are connected for free. The SWSF Approach can be seen as an attempt to extend on the work of OWL-S, to incorporate a variety of capabilities not within the OWL-S goals. A difference between FLOWS the ontology part of SWSF and OWL-S is the expressive power of the underlying language. FLOWS is based On rst-Order logic, which means that it can express considerably more than can be expressed using, for example, OWL-DL. The use of First-Order logic enables a more re ned approach than possible in OWL-S to representing different forms of data ow that can arise in Web services. Another difference is that FLOWS tries to explicitly model more aspects of Web services than OWL-S; this includes the fact that FLOWS can readily model process models using a variety of different paradigms and data ow between services, which is achieved either through message passing or access to shared uents. Although the SWSF Approach seems to tackle both conceptual modeling, as well as language issues, it is very unclear how all the paradigms part of this approach work together. Moreover, the purpose of FLOWS was to develop of First-Order logic ontology for Web services, and not a Web language, for example, FLOWS does not even use URIs to specify their concepts. Amongst all the approaches presented in this chapter, only the IRS-III Approach is integrated with the WSMO Approach in the sense that IRS-III uses WSMO as its underlying epistemological framework. Within IRS-III the stress is on creating a capability-based broker (facilitating the invocation of Web services through WSMO goals), ease-ofpublication being able to turn standalone code into a SWS through a single simple dialog, and tightly coupling the semantic descriptions with deployed Web services (e.g., semantic concepts and relations can be implemented as Web services). Ongoing work continues to align the two approaches. The WSDL-S Approach follows a much more technology-centerd approach, not providing a conceptual model for the description of Web services and their related aspects, but rather being a bottom up approach (annotating existing standards with metadata) than a top down, complete, solution to the integration problem. WSDL-S can actually be used to represent a grounding mechanism for WSMO. Being ontology language agnostic, WSDL-S allows Web service providers to directly annotate their services using WSML. That is, modelReference attributes can
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