Logging Support in VS .NET

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If you assume that you re going to have problems with applications at some point, you ll be well served by insisting that applications log messages when practical. As with nearly all other topics in this chapter, it s a balance between logging everything and computing nothing; logging is overhead and consumes
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disk space. If you chose to write out a 500-byte log message for every transaction, you ll be logging 50KB/second at 100 transactions a second. Let that application run for a few days and you ve filled up a filesystem. In general, log all fatal or near-fatal but recoverable problems; log anything that might help with performance modeling or prediction; generate period logs of response time and load metrics; and log anything unusual, such as input that comes close to a boundary condition. How do you add logging support Writing to a log file is the most obvious approach, although some applications use a centralized logging facility like syslog in the Unix operating system. Here are some practical concerns for logging activities and log entry formats:
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Logs are almost always read by people, so make them easy to parse by carbon-, not silicon-, based readers. Not everyone reading the log will know that mkttfxcp is the make trade ticket FIX-compatible step, so take the time to spell out exactly what happened, where, and why. Sequences of events help determine why a failure occurred; timestamps that are coordinated across all log entries help tremendously. Make sure that you re using a common time base such as the Network Time Protocol (NTP, visit www.ntp.org) and include a timestamp in every log entry. It s going to be hard to diagnose problems at the millisecond level via logs, so you can stick to minutes and seconds in the timestamps. Nobody can digest megabytes of logs, even with significant doses of caffeine. Keep the logs short, using circular log buffers or trimming the logs frequently. The exception is logs that may be used for tracking security incidents; if you re going to go back through the logs looking for patterns, you ll want to keep them accessible and complete. Logs should be located where the operations staff can find them, but not in a public place so that nonprivileged users can glean information from them. The /var/log directory is an ideal place on a Unix system, because it is persistent across reboots and expected to contain files that grow over time. Don t use temporary directories, because your logs may vanish after the mysterious reboot you re trying to explore. Don t use filesystems limited in space, or those that are already under high load, because logging will fill up the disk and add to its write load. Think of logging as primitive engineering journalism; use the five Ws: who, what, why, when, and where (and don t forget the H: how) did something fail, or why was the log entry made If there s a reference point back in the code such as a routine name, or a trail (routine XYZ called by routine ABC), leave those clues for the folks who will read the log entries later on.
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Process Replication
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Process-level replication ensures that you have another copy of a server at the ready, with all of the intermediate, in-memory state and supporting data it needs to take over for a primary or peer process. Web sites frequently use process replication by running multiple web servers on multiple small machines. Replication at same-system, process level buys you the shortest time to repair, because you can redirect client connections or route transactions to a replicated process in near-real-time. To be complete in our discussion of replication, we also look at checkpoint and restart techniques typically used to restore a system to a well-known state after it has been running for a long period of time. Checkpoint and restart and process replication are similar in their efforts to reduce time to repair a server fault; however, process replication can take you from minutes to seconds, while checkpointing is most commonly used to go from hours down to minutes. We look at each technique and provide thoughts on its ideal applications.
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