Part I Planning an Active Directory Deployment in VS .NET

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Part I Planning an Active Directory Deployment
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to rule out all other houses on that street. The postal carrier compares the street address with the owner, John Smith, to verify accurate delivery. DNS resolves domain names in much the same way. Because a DNS address is made up of resolvable domain names, each domain can be resolved until the actual computer host is finally reached. The domains are as follows: Root domain The very top of the inverted domain tree. The root domain is represented by a period. . First-level domains First-level domains, owned by the InterNIC, are major divisions of addresses. The following are common first-level domains: com stands for commercial net stands for network edu stands for education gov stands for government mil stands for military org stands for nonprofit organizations Second-level domains Second-level domains represent private businesses, organizations, or groups. For example, microsoft, idgbooks, amazon, msn, yahoo, and so on, are all second-level domains. Third-level domains Third-level domains can be a type of service, such as www or ftp, or they can further subdivide the second-level domain, such as acct.idgbooks.com. Child domains You can have any additional domains beyond the third-level domain. These are called child domains and are further used to subdivide other domains. For example, in acct.corp.namerica.idgbooks.com, acct and corp would be considered child domains. Beyond the final domain is the actual server or computer for which the address belongs. The full DNS address ending at a particular server or computer is called a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). As you can see in Figure 2-1, the DNS hierarchy begins at the root and branches from the root. When DNS needs to resolve a name, it begins with the Internet root and works it way through each domain until it reaches the final leaf or end node, which is a computer. The computer can then answer the resolution with its IP address so that the FQDN is resolved to a single IP address.
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You can learn more about the DNS resolution process in 18.
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2 The Active Directory Namespace
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Host Computers Figure 2-1: DNS hierarchy
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Part I Planning an Active Directory Deployment
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18 explores DNS implementation, how to install it, and how to set it up on a Windows 2000 Server in great detail. However, while discussing the topic of namespace planning, it is a good time to mention DNS requirements. In an Active Directory implementation, as you have learned, DNS is required. The Active Directory naming structure is built on DNS, and the Active Directory simply will not work without DNS. In fact, when you install the Active Directory, the Active Directory Installation Wizard will search for a DNS server. If it does not find one, the wizard will prompt you to allow it to install DNS with the Active Directory. You can think of the Active Directory as interconnected and interdependent with the DNS.
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You can find step-by-step installation information on DNS in s 6 and 7.
So, when you are planning your Active Directory implementation, you need to stop and take a serious look at DNS. If you do not have a DNS implementation, your best approach is to use Microsoft DNS that installs automatically with the Active Directory. (DNS is a service that can be installed from your Windows 2000 CD-ROM like any other service.) This ensures complete compatibility and will avoid a world of problems. However, you may already have a DNS implementation in your network. You may have already spent a lot of money and configuration time on your implementation, and it may not be Microsoft DNS. Now what can you do The Active Directory does not require that you implement Microsoft DNS, but it does require a DNS implementation that supports certain DNS features. If you have an existing DNS infrastructure and you want to keep it, then you need to spend some serious time investigating and testing that infrastructure to ensure compatibility with the Active Directory. There are some specific issues you should pay close attention to, and these are explored in the following sections.