Stellar P larimetry in .NET

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Stellar P larimetry
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1410 Non-Extreme Late-Type Stars
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The results of a survey of solar neighbourhood stars by Tinbergen & Zwaan (1981) suggested that intrinsic linear polarization begins to appear in stars later than F1 They proposed its origins to the presence of differential saturation of the Zeeman components associated with transverse magnetic elds Solar-types of course should be included under this wide umbrella, but reference to such stars is postponed to the following chapter The possibilities of detecting polarization are more likely if chromospheric activity is detected say by the presence of Ca II H and K in emission An early investigation on the possibility of detecting polarization in these emission features themselves was undertaken by Chen (1982) for the stars And, Gem, Gem, Gem, Gem and Her By using photography, the level of detectivity at 10% was low and a null result ensued Measurements at the H and Ca II K lines of a sample of 25 late-type stars (mainly K type) were made by Clarke, Schwarz & Stewart (1985) Enhancements of p were found in these lines for a few of the monitored objects A similar study was made by Clarke & Brooks (1985), mainly of Southern Hemisphere stars, with suspicions that CMi and Sco display polarization changes across the Ca II K line at detection levels 001% Long term and accurate monitoring in the B-band of the K2 III giant Bo (Arcturus) by Kemp, Henson, Kraus, et al (1986) indicated variations with amplitude in p of about 0005%, with a period or semi-period of around 45 days Three different processes were explored for the polarigenic mechanism; pulsation modulation appeared to be ruled out, the more likely cause being related to the rotation of the star Based on the mechanism of magnetic intensi cation, Landi Degl Innocenti (1982) modelled the possible periodic variability of the linear polarization gener-
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Fig 146 The model of Landi Degl Innocenti depicts a magnetic region at latitude, , relative to the rotational axis of the star, with the local magnetic eld direction de ned by the polar angles, and The polarigenic mechanism is based on magnetic intensi cation (Taken from Landi Degl innocenti, 1982)
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14 Late-type Stars
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Fig 147 Examples of the expected polarimetric behaviour of a star with a magnetic spot with the emitted radiation from the active area suffering magnetic intensi cation These diagrams relate to the magnetic zone being at latitude 30 for various angles of inclination, i (Taken from Landi Degl innocenti, 1982)
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ated from cool stars with magnetic structures The loci of the expected behaviour is presented according to the inclination of the star for random distributions of magnetic regions in two activity belts, equidistant from the stellar equator The geometry associated with a single spot is depicted in Figure 146 A sample of the expected polarimetric behaviour is illustrated in Figure 147 for a spot at latitude 30 , with the star viewed with a range of inclinations Modelling to describe broadband linear polarization was advanced by Huovelin & Saar (1991) with a treatment involving integrations over the stellar surface to describe the spatial structures This approach demonstrated the inadequacies of simple scaling predictions of simple spot models when the magnetic region lling factors are larger than 1% of the visible hemisphere, the discrepancies being particularly marked when the region is close to the stellar limb
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References
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References to Introduction and Surveys
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Arsenijevi , J (1986) Polarization of radiation c from some cool supergiants Pubs Obs Astron Beograd No: 28, 55pp (In Croation) [312]
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Code, AD, Whitney, BA (1995) Polarization from scattering blobs ApJ, 441, 400 407 [313] Dyck, HM, Jennings, MC (1971) Intrinsic polarization in K and M giants and supergiants AJ, 76, 431 444 [311]
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Stellar P larimetry Dyck, HM, Johnson, HR (1969) Chromospheres and polarization in late-type stars ApJ, 156, 389 392 [311] Kruszewski, A, Coyne, GV (1976) Wavelength dependence of polarization XXXI Cool stars AJ, 81, 641 649 [312] Kruszewski, A, Gehrels, T, Serkowski, K (1968) Wavelength dependence of polarization XII Red Variables AJ, 73, 677 687 [311] Schwarz, HE (1985) Narrow band polarimetry of a sample of cool giants and supergiants A&A, 147, 111 114 [312] Schwarz, HE (1986) Polarimetry of cool giants and supergiants Vistas Astron, 29, 253 280 [312] Shawl, SJ (1975) Wavelength dependence of polarization XXVIII Circumstellar scattering: polarization and reddening models AJ, 80, 595 601 [312] Simmons, JFL (1982) Analytic treatment of polarization by arbitrary scattering mechanisms in circumstellar envelopes I Single Stars MNRAS, 200, 91 113 [312] Simmons, JFL (1983) Analytic treatment of polarization by arbitrary scattering mechanisms in circumstellar envelopes II Binary Stars MNRAS, 205, 153 170 [312] Voshchinnikov, NV, Karjukin, VV (1994) Multiple scattering of polarized radiation in circumstellar dust shells A&A, 288, 883 896 [312] Doherty, LR (1986) On the polarization of alpha Orionis ApJ, 307, 261 268 [315] Grigoryan, KA (1958) Polarization observations of Cep Soob Byurakan Obs, 28, 45 48 [313] Hayes, DP (1980) Ordered linear polarization changes in Betelgeuse ApJ, 241, L165 L168 [313, 314] Hayes, DP (1981a) B- lter linear polarization measurements of Cep in the Autumn of 1980 IBVS, No: 1984, Budapest [313] Hayes, DP (1981b) Lower atmosphere changes inferred from variations in Betelgeuse s linear polarization PASP, 93, 752 755 [314] Hayes, DP (1982) Linear polarization of the late-type variable stars Cep and Mira in year 1981 IBVS, No: 2064, Budapest [313] Hayes, DP (1984) Variations of Betelgeuse s optical linear polarization over four consecutive observing seasons: 1974 1983 ApJS, 55, 179 188 [314] Le Borgne, JF, Mauron, N, Leroy, JL (1986) The polarized dust shell around Orionis I New U BV measurements A&A, 168, 211 216 [315] Marcondes-Machado, JA (1987) A model for the intrinsic linear polarization of cool giant and supergiant stars A&A, 188, 131 136 [315] Mauron, N, Le Borgne, JF (1986) The polarized dust shell around Orionis II The silicon fractional condensation, mass-loss rate and grain radius A&A, 168, 217 224 [315] Schwarz, HE, Clarke, D (1984) The polarization of Orionis I: Interpretation of broadband measures A&A, 132, 370 374 [314] Shafter, A, Jura, M (1980) Circular polarization from scattering by circumstellar grains AJ, 85, 1513 1519 [315] Tinbergen, J, Greenberg, JM, de Jager, C (1981) Multicolor linear polarimetry of Betelgeuse and Antares A&A, 95, 215 220 [313] Tuthill, PG (1994) PhD Thesis: Imaging Stars Through the Atmosphere , 4, University of Cambridge, Cambridge [315] Tuthill, PG, Hanhiff, CA, Baldwin, JE (1997) Hotspots on late-type supergiants MNRAS, 285, 529 539 [315]
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