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Output Spectra Input Spectra
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dB Frequency
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Frequency
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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier PUMP SIGNAL (1490 nm)
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Individual wavelength LASERS
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A W G M U L T I P L E X E R
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Composite WDM signal
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Figure 94 Enabling technologies for WDM transmission (a) Arrayed waveguide multiplexer; (b) EDFA
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synchronization that is so necessary in SONET networks This basic shift from LANs, and cost alleviation as compared to SONET, is one of the key reasons for the success of GigE and 10 GigE Performance wise, GigE represents the simplest implementation of a point-to-point connection in an optical domain This means that a lightpath that is based on GigE protocol carries
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Table 91 Enabling WDM technologies Function Principle Position in WDM network At transmitters and transponders Used in transponders
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Laser
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Transmits light on a particular wavelength Modulate the emitted light from a laser with the information bearing signal, thereby coupling the information onto the light Detect the light and generate a current proportional to the information that is carried in the optical line These need narrowband optics (single wavelength) for functioning
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At transceivers to receive the signal
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Optical Switches
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Switch optical wavelengths Can be of add drop type (add and drop signals or allow to pass through), or can be of optical cross connect type (OXC) cross connect between multiple ports
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Distributed feedback (DFB), or Fabry Perot cavity lasers are well known Two types are available: external and direct modulators Use Lithium Niobate substrates for modulation, also available in electro-absorption type Two types are available: PIN and APD The PIN photodetector is a simple PN junction separated by an intrinsic region on which photons fall to create electron ow The APD, or avalanche photodiode, uses the avalanche effect, thereby magnifying the number of electrons that ow through a junction per photon hit on the junction Mechanical switches: use mechanical ber movement MEMS (microelectro mechanical switches) use nano structures to move between ports SOA (semiconductor optical ampli er) based switches use an active semiconductor device to switch between bers Electro absorption and Mach Zehnder interferometer based switches are also known
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Used in optical add drop multiplexers to drop and add channels or to enable optical cross connect functionality
Continued
Table 91 Enabling WDM technologies Principle Erbium-doped or Raman ampli ers known Position in WDM network
Component
Function
Ampli ers
Amplify signals
GBIC Gigabit interface converters, SFP, XFP
Low-cost standard transmitters and receivers Distributed feedback lasers or, in some cases, DBR (distributed Bragg re ector) lasers The receiver is usually of APD type to create a good power budget (due to good APD sensitivity) Based on MEMS or liquid crystal type
Wavelength blocker
Used in a distributed fashion throughout the network to enable ampli cation These are hot pluggable modules This means that these modules can be swiftly plugged into network element cards and removed without need for software provisioning Used in DOADM applications (dynamic optical add drop multiplexer) Full dynamic OADM
Wavelength selectable switch (WSS)
Blocks an arbitrary set of wavelengths from a composite WDM signal, allowing the rest of the wavelengths to pass through Selects a single or a set of wavelengths and switches these to any of the output ports Comes in 1 N combination typically, but other combinations are possible
Based on MEMS and AWG The device dynamically switches any desired combination of wavelengths to any output ports
Broadband Services
GigE frames from a source node to a destination node without any exception This end-to-end connection often involves cutting through multiple intermediate nodes, all optically However, this does not mean that GigE has no provision for the aggregation of lower speed streams into itself, like that seen in SONET/SDH networks At the periphery of networks, Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch interfaces often allow slower speed (10/100 Fast Ethernet or other such) signals to be statistically multiplexed to form the mainline GigE/10GigE signal However, unlike in SONET, where the multiplexing is pure TDM-based, in GigE and 10 GigE, the multiplexing of slower speed signals is based on statistical TDM (STDM) STDM is a low-cost multiplexing technique, but ends up compromising on the Quality of Service (QoS) parameter of the individual ingress streams The reason for this compromise is the best effort multiplexing scheme achieved through the use of STDM To provide QoS for the low-cost GigE and 10 GigE transmission versions, a new scheme was proposed to use MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) along with GigE and 10 GigE, in order to differentiate the traf c ow at switching nodes However, this also led to cost and management issues The cost issue is due to the increase in complexity at ingress and egress MPLS switches, as compared to the traditional GigE/10 GigE switches While the management problems come from having an in-band management system (both data and control in the same plane), leading to issues of severe reliability compromises Despite these natural shortcomings, there is still a tangible cost saving in the LAN solution, as compared to the TDM solution Hence, it is always a dif cult choice to decide between conventional TDM and next generation LAN Of course, both reside on the same optical backbone and use WDM to exploit the near-in nite bandwidth offered by the optical ber
924 Resilient packet rings (RPR)
The IEEE 80217 standard has been widely accepted as the de facto implementation of the resilient packet rings technology The RPR system was originated as a packet ring mechanism from two technologies: the IEEE 8026 DQDB standard and spatial reuse protocol The RPR system consists of two counterpropagating ber ringlets, with stations or nodes along the circumference A station has opto electro opto interfaces, such that all the traf c is converted to electronics, processed and then retransmitted Further, the station has a set of buffers to queue up packets that are yet to be injected into the network When packets arrive at a station from a local interface, the station momentarily queues up the packets until it nds an empty slot on the ringlet it best thinks will reach the destination It then transmits the packet on the empty slot The packet hops from one station to another and when it reaches the destination, it is removed from the network thereby resulting in spatial reuse of the bandwidth Protection is carried out by halving the effective bandwidth when a ber cut occurs Fairness and QoS can be carried out by implementing fairness control protocols, etc in the RPR system For a detailed analysis of RPR refer to [3]