Summary: future BWA roadmap and diverse technology landscape in .NET

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147 Summary: future BWA roadmap and diverse technology landscape
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Although BWA systems come in multiple avors, from the outset, some general considerations about possible future developments may be drawn First, a variety of technology options are possible, depending on the planned customer density Systems equipped with very few
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cabled access points have higher per-subscriber costs However, installing multiple antennas on existing APs allows the leveraging of past investment in access points and related site costs Furthermore, since little or no cabled infrastructure needs to be installed, deployment may proceed quite fast, but the capacity for adding new customers is limited In any case, current BWA system capacity is limited by the amount of radio spectrum available for broadband services (eg the fraction of the spectrum allotted via government spectrum licensing polices to broadband services) and the extent to which clever system design can increase the performance achievable from a given amount of bandwidth As already pointed out, a possible option for increasing performance is to resort to picocellular clusters, so as to increase the frequency reuse The need to deploy more transceivers (and install wireline to connect them to the provider s network) makes the improvement costly, so that picocellular systems have costs dominated by labor costs approaching those of cabled systems As already pointed out, an emerging option is to exploit space time processing techniques combined with multi-antenna transceiver architectures, which hold the promise of roughly a factor of 10 improvement in the user throughput and/or frequency reuse These emerging techniques rely heavily on improvements in the processing power of application-speci c integrated circuits (ASICs) or digital signal processors (DSPs), enabling the real-time signal processing to be performed in affordable hardware This contribution supports the conclusion that even though today s 4G technology may be still immature, it is relatively safe to predict that there will be a growing demand for BWA to portable and mobile devices This is because of fundamental market trends toward smaller personal computing and communication devices (eg palmtops, PDAs) that, in the long term, are likely to account for the majority of end user devices, in contrast to the fast-growing minority that they represent today The authors opinion is that, once untethered computing devices become ubiquitous, today s PC-centric access network (HFC, DSL, and so on) will have to evolve toward hybrid wired and wireless networks, while the last mile, last 100 m, or even last 10 m will be mostly wireless The cost and performance of broadband wireless networks will thus be crucial to the user s overall experience In this context, it is worth noting that there are still signi cant challenges associated with delivering true broadband services, as de ned in this chapter, to mobile devices Research and development (R&D) challenges faced by developers of 4G wireless standards include higher aggregate rates (up to 100 Mbps), maintenance of service quality under mobile fading conditions, integration of mobile and xed network architectures and greater spectral ef ciency, capacity and scalability The examined different wireless broadband technology options are different in detail Furthermore, 80216-based systems may be appealing for supporting market entry by providers that have no access to existing wireline assets On the contrary, in the most remote areas, a small fraction of users may best be served by LEO satellites, where the very high xed cost of launching satellites is offset by the very low per-passing costs Finally, 4G WLANs represent an important example of how a solution to a speci c problem the wireless extension of Ethernet could become the basis to provide ubiquitous IP-compliant broadband wireless access to mobile users However, four main technical challenges, namely: ease of use, security, mobility and network management, are still to be overcome before accomplishing this task Furthermore, the economic viability of the public hotspots market is still unclear
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