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This information may be out of date as soon as it has been calculated, so it's still not foolproof But it is better than not accounting for affinity at all The naive approach we began with may be appropriate for some sys tems, but if you expect processor affinity to be set with any regularity (particularly if your own code does it), then you should take it into consideration
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There's still another rather obscure issue remaining with this code On a 64-bit system, the count of CPUs may be anywhere from 1 to 64 But if you are running a 32-bit process within WOW64, for example, then affin ity masks will only be 32-bits wide This could cause subtle program bugs if you ever make an assumption about the number of bits available in a mask directly correlating to the number of processors the OS claims are available APIs that interact with processor affinities simulate greater than 32 processors in a WOW64 program by silently changing the bitmasks Upon retrieval, the high and low 32 bits are combined using a bitwise OR, hence a mask of exl could indicate either processor 1 or 32 A program in WOW64 that sets the thread affinity will restrict it to running on the first 32 processors
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Microprocessor Architecture Considerations There are two particular microprocessor architectures in which affinity can be of particular interest Affinity can be used to ensure threads run only on one of the logical proces sors when running on an Intel HyperThreading (HT) processor Because each logical processor on a single HT chip shares a set of execution units, having many compute-intensive and low-memory-Iatency threads share a single HT chip can be inefficient Not only does throughput drop, but scheduling the work can increase memory latency induced waits (For instance, this might happen if a thread is able to normally keep all of its data in cache, but by scheduling multiple threads on the same HT chip, the total working memory needed by both cannot fit) If we had two HT chips with two cores and two logical processors each (that's an 8-way), and four threads to run, we might choose to affinitize those threads to run only on processors 0, 2, 4, and 6 because the adjacent pairs (ie, 0 and 1 , 2 and 3, etc) constitute the HT logical processors The second microprocessor architecture where affinity can be useful is Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) machines In a NUMA machine, there are separate nodes, where a node is some number of CPUs and a sep arate memory system Memory transfer between nodes is very expensive even more than an ordinary cache miss that has to hit main memory-and so it's generally best if a thread is run on a processor in the same node as the
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When a thread is created on multiprocessor systems, the as auto-assigns it an ideal processor The determination of ideal processor is fairly arbitrary: the as uses a per process round robin algorithm to dole out ideal proces sors as they are needed Each process is given a seed, and then anytime a thread is created within that process, the seed is incremented Process seeds are also given out in a round robin fashion The choice of ideal processor is also hyperthreading aware and attempts to utilize all physical processors before resorting to individual logical processors This algorithm is meant to somewhat evenly distribute ideal processors among the threads created in the system and is apt to change at any time An ideal processor is the thread's preferred processor, and it remains constant throughout the life of that thread unless changed manually The
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