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Table 22 Most Valuable Companies by Market Cap, 1997 and 2008
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Top 20 Valuable Companies 1997 ($ millions) Country Top 20 Valuable Companies 2008
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Market Cap ($millions)
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Country
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Market Cap ($ millions)
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1 General Electric 2 Coca-Cola Co 3 Microsoft Corp
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US US US
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239,53944 Exxon Mobil Corp 164,76008 Petrochina CO-H
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US China
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504,989 413,930 339,026 322,714 318,957 293,209 281,536 273,658 257,423 240,079 228,211 226,958 223,625 216,681 207,639 200,398
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152,15550 China Mobile China 150,33770 General Electric 126,53350 Gazprom US Russia
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4 Exxon US Mobil Corp 5 BP PLC 6 Merck & Co 7 Citigroup Inc 8 Intel Corp 9 Nippon Telegraph 10 Novartis AG-REG 11 Bank of America 12 IBM UK US US US Japan
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126,52669 Industrial and China Comm Bk 122,83085 Microsoft Corp 115,38450 Commercial Bank ZI US China
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112,11252 Petrobras Pref Brazil Netherlands US UK US UK US
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Switzerland 111,11029 Royal Dutch Shell US US 104,75180 AT&T Inc 100,24029 BHP Billiton PLC 96,48388 95,99280 95,40025 91,47366 Wal-Mart Stores BP PLC Procter & Gamble
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13 P zer Inc US 14 Toyota Motor 15 Procter & Gamble Japan US
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16 Roche Sweden Hldg-Genus
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HSBC UK Holdings PLC
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(Continued )
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Table 22 (Continued )
se eing the e le phant
Top 20 Valuable Companies 1997 ($ millions) Country
Market Cap ($millions)
Top 20 Valuable Companies 2008
Country
Market Cap ($ millions)
17 Johnson & Johnson 18 Eli Lilly & Co 19 American Intl Group 20 AT&T Inc
US US US US
87,26576 77,32009 76,07258 71,57990
China Const BA-H Total SA Berkshire Hathaway Chevron Corp
China France US US
199,225 198,282 197,020 195,270
Source: Bloomberg, May 2008
an advantage when selling to the bottom of the pyramid (BOP), the four billion people who live on $10 a day or less (including two billion who live on $2 or less) This massive class of people forms the majority of the Earth s inhabitants, and yet they have been largely ignored by MNCs from the rich world due to their limited buying power EM companies may have a better feel for how to position products for the BOP and burgeoning middle classes in other developing countries The Tata s Nano, for example, is a four-seat automobile that will sell for as little as $2,500, less than the price of a GPS system in most European luxury cars In poorer countries where transportation alternatives are scooters and bicycles, this car may be the new Volkswagen, or people s car To compete in this new Macro Quantum world, older MNCs must actively embrace and seek these BOP opportunities
Capital Access and Waves of Money
The global nancial landscape has been transformed by this historic economic integration In 1980, the World Bank supplied more than 27 percent of cross-border capital ows into emerging markets and G7 commercial banks provided 43 percent15 Today, World Bank capital ows to EMs are less than 5 percent, and G7 banks supply less than 15 percent There are so many more forms of money available today: stock and bond issuance (by companies from countries that never
Trade and Finance
1980: $150 Billion 05% 1% 696% 796% 1094% 4675% 1175% 256% 2586% 1415% 2630% 2006% 791% 1271% 496% 2007e: $125 Trillion
Portfolio equity Bonds Grants FDI Export credit Official loans Bank loans Remittances
Profound Changes in Capital Flows to Emerging Markets
Source: IMF, World Bank, Bloomberg, EIU
participated before), export nance and foreign direct investment (FDI) by MNCs that are trading more and building factories overseas at record rates, and local banks and institutions now offer liquidity (all shown in Figure 25) This newly diversi ed access has happened amazingly quickly thanks to improving EM credit ratings, local stock and bond market development, and greater savings rates in these countries that are channeling their newfound wealth into these new investments and making local nancial markets broader and deeper, even if the current credit crisis slows this trend In old Soviet-style economies, stock and bond markets didn t exist The World Bank notes that emerging markets now absorb almost a trillion dollars in foreign ows, up from less than $150 billion in 1985 In the last quarter century, there have been six identi able, overlapping signi cant waves of cross-border capital ows including today s stage of economic globalization In the rst wave of the early 1980s, G7 institutional investors began a process of globally diversifying capital into foreign stock markets, focusing on the G7 as well as a few Western European countries, and Australia and New Zealand The idea was for G7 investors to improve portfolio returns while reducing overall risk through country diversi cation Back then this was considered exotic; today it is seen as basic portfolio allocation Shortly after this wave, a second swell occurred, in which G7 multinationals globally shopped for cheap labor and lower production costs Companies like GE and IBM, looked for skilled workers in