Models of female sexual dysfunctions Hypogonadism/agonadism and hypoactive sexual desire in VS .NET

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Models of female sexual dysfunctions Hypogonadism/agonadism and hypoactive sexual desire
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Although there are currently no established models of female sexual dysfunction in rats, there are several reasons to believe that such models could exist The most obvious would be the consequences of hypogonadism induced by ovariectomy followed by maintenance with different doses of estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone Ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen and progesterone display a complete pattern of proceptive and receptive behaviors, whereas those treated with estrogen alone display no proceptive behaviors, low levels of lordosis, and high rates of rejection responses Certain pharmacologic treatments (eg apomorphine, oxytocin, PT-141), are able to increase proceptive behaviors and reduce rejection responses in ovariectomized females treated or maintained on estrogen alone This pattern of data suggests that such drugs may be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, with or without accompanying hypogonadism A similar loss of interest in sexual activity occurs during the phenomenon of estrous termination Estrous termination occurs progressively after the female receives a requisite number of intromissions and ejaculations during sex It can also be induced by
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Copulatory behavior and measures of female sexual motivation or desire
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As in males, female sexual behavior can be divided into sequential appetitive and consummatory components (Fig 11) In the female rat, these aspects of sexual behavior are also referred to as proceptive and receptive components, two different aspects of sexual behavior displayed by estrous females in the presence of sexually-active males To solicit attention and approach of the male, the female displays a variety of active proceptive behavioral patterns, including solicitations, hops and darts, and earwiggles As mentioned above, receptivity has been used to describe the behavioral postures assumed by
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1 erences are typically examined on a nal test, when the drug is not administered (thus revealing the necessity of opioid reward during paced copulation) However, during this nal test without the drug, females previously treated with naloxone display a conditioned disruption of solicitation and lordosis relative to saline-treated females, despite being primed fully with estrogen and progesterone As a result, males engage in fewer intromissions and achieve fewer ejaculations with those females A pattern of diminished sexual solicitation and receptivity, which leads to more restricted sexual contact with males, is analogous in many ways to the pattern of sexual behavior displayed by women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder It is not yet known if this pattern of disrupted appetitive sexual behavior can be restored by pharmacologic or experiential treatments that increase desire in women
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manual vaginocervical stimulation using a lubricated glass rod that approximates the size of a male rat penis, and that is inserted to mimic the stimulation received during intromission The rst behavioral set to disappear is solicitation, and this precedes a rise in rejection responses Females given vaginocervical stimulation also show a faster loss of lordosis over the next 12 hrs, compared to females given sham stimulation It would appear, then, that sexual stimulation in females, as in males, activates inhibitory systems that bring about refractoriness It is not yet known how different pharmacologic treatments might delay the onset of estrous termination, and whether such effects might prove useful in treatment of low desire It will be important to consider how androgen administration may alter sexual behavior in ovariectomized females, with or without estrogen treatment Currently, combined androgen estrogen treatment is used in postmenopausal women to restore sexual desire and arousal It should be straightforward to examine this combined hormone therapy in ovariectomized rats and categorize the effects, along with studying potential mechanisms (eg steroid receptor activation and interaction, role of peripheral sex hormone binding globulins) It will also be critical to study the sexual behavior of older female rats Female rats have a homologue of menopause in which ovarian function is disrupted then declines to a continuous state of vaginal diestrus (accompanied by a progressive atrophy of the vagina and clitoris) It is not known how these females would respond to sexual advances by a male, or to manually applied vaginocervical stimulation
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