ARCHITECTURE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION IN MANET in VS .NET

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Therefore, when a node sees a new neighbor it may have already heard about it from others As a result, it may already have enough information to determine whether the new node can be trusted Such a system is called a reputation system [91] This scheme has been introduced on the internet before and has been very successful For example, eBay allows customers to rate merchants after a transaction New customers can see the ratings given by previous customers Based on this the trustworthiness of the merchants can be decided by the customers The main strength of the reputation system is that the merchants (provider of services) are encouraged to behave well If they do not behave well, they will get a bad reputation, will not get new customers, and therefore will go out of business Reputations systems have also been proposed for use in MANET In these schemes, each node monitors all its neighbors When a node observes a neighbor behave well, it lets other nodes know about this This increases the reputation of the well-behaved node When a node sees its neighbor behave maliciously (eg dropping a packet it was supposed to forward), it lets other nodes know of this behavior also This decreases the reputation of the malicious node In general each node maintains a table with the reputation of every node it has come in contact with or has heard about from other nodes A node updates this table whenever it obtains direct evidence locally of good or bad node behavior and whenever it receives reputation updates from other nodes Each node may put more weight on direct evidence it obtains than on indirect observations or reputation updates received from other nodes This approach can be applied both to the hierarchical and the peer-to-peer cooperative architecture A protocol called CONFIDANT (cooperation of nodes: fairness in dynamic ad hoc networks) has been proposed in [92] This scheme takes into account only the negative reputation Good behavior is not considered in deciding the reputation The advantage of this approach is that it responds quickly to bad behavior as compared with schemes where good behavior is rewarded This is because, in schemes that reward good behavior, a node can behave well for a period of time to boost its reputation before launching an attack The CONFIDANT protocol is not prone to such attacks and malicious behavior has an immediate effect on the node s reputation However, the scheme is sensitive to false accusations The authors propose to deal with this by periodically reinstating malicious nodes The problem with this solution is that the nodes might resort to the same malicious behavior right after being reinstated Another scheme called CORE (a collaborative reputation mechanism to enforce node cooperation) is proposed in [93] Unlike the CONFIDANT scheme, the CORE scheme allows nodes to have both a good reputation and a bad reputation Each node utilizes a watchdog for monitoring the behavior of its neighbors If the watchdog detects that one of the neighbors is not cooperating in the network functions (eg routing or forwarding functions), the reputation of that node is decreased Negative reputation is not shared with other nodes to prevent denial of service attacks When the watchdog detects that a node performs the expected function, then the reputation of the node is increased locally Positive reputation is shared with other nodes The nodes with a bad reputation are not allowed to use the network services For example their route requests are denied and their packets are not forwarded by the network Michiardi and Molva [93] also discuss the application of this scheme to DSR by basically providing a layer on top of DSR to make DSR more resistant to misbehaving nodes The advantage of a scheme such as CORE is that it takes into account the limitations of promiscuous monitoring (as discussed in Section 552) on account of which a node might be perceived to be misbehaving even though it is not In this scheme such perceived
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