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46 ANONYMOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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Neighbor Table each entry in this table contains the pseudonym of a neighbor, the pairwise shared key pairs (namely the linkIDs and corresponding keys) used on the link with this neighbor as well as the index of the pair currently in use Forwarding Route Table this table contains entries of format ,dest_id, destSeq, pre-link-list, next-link-list The dest_id is the real identi er of the destination node, destSeq is the corresponding sequence number, pre-link-list is the set of pre-hop link identi ers from which packets destined for dest_id may arrive and next-link-list is the set of next-hop link identi ers to which packets destined for dest_id are to be forwarded Reverse Route Table this contains entries of the format ,dest_id, destSeq, pre-hop-pseudonym where pre-hop-pseudonym is the pseudonym of the node from which the RREQ packet for dest_id was received This is then used to send route replies back to the source Target Link Table this contains the list of linkIDS for which the current node is the nal destination Thus packets bearing these linkIDs are intended for this node
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The source sends out a RREQ packet Each RREQ packet has the following elds:
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ARREQ this is a label that speci es that this is a route request message; ARREQ_id this is a globally unique identi er for the ARREQ; Dest_id this is an identi er of the destination; Destseq this is the last known sequence number for the destination or an unknown ag if this information is not known; PS active pseudonym
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The source populates the above elds with PS denoting its own pseudonym and transmits the RREQ message Note that MASK, unlike ANODR, does not hide the destination address The address of the sender though is hidden We show the route discovery process in Figure 427 When an intermediate node receives the ARREQ message, it checks whether it has seen the corresponding ARREQ_id previously If so, it discards the message Otherwise, it inserts an entry into its reverse route table with information about the identity of the destination, the pseudonym of the node from which this ARREQ message was received as well as the sequence number associated with the destination It then changes the pseudonym eld of the ARREQ message to contain its own pseudonym and rebroadcasts the message This process continues until either the ARREQ reaches the destination or it reaches an intermediate node that has a valid routing entry to the destination Note also that, in order to avoid correlation attacks, each node including the destination or any intermediate node with a valid path to the destination is expected to rebroadcast the ARREQ once If not, the adversary can look at the fact that the ARREQ has not been forwarded and infer the identity of the node with the destination address in some cases An ARREP message is generated by either the destination or by an intermediate node with a path to the destination The ARREP packet contains the following elds:
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LinkID this is the link identi er shared by this node and the pre-hop-pseudonym node; Enc(ARREP, dest_id, destSeq) the ciphertext obtained by encrypting the information using the key corresponding to the link identi er being used
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SECURE ROUTING
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Figure 427 Anonymous route discovery with a route reply generated by destination D
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Thus, note that the ARREP packet is con dential The ARREP packet is identi ed only by the LinkID which can be recognized only by the intended receiver by looking at its neighbor table If the destination is generating the ARREP packet, then it has to modify its target link table by entering the corresponding linkIDs An intermediate node will not have to do this Any intermediate node that receives the ARREP packet will check if it is the intended recipient If so, it decrypts the relevant portion of the ARREP packet and veri es if the destSeq is larger than that in its reverse route table If so, the node will form and transmit a new ARREP packet This packet includes the linkID shared with the pre-hop-pseudonym node corresponding to the ARREQ This information is obtained from the reverse route table In addition, this packet contains the information encrypted using the key corresponding to the used linkID The node will also have to update its forwarding route table This process continues until ARREP reaches the source We show the steps involved during this process in Figure 427 Data forwarding then is akin to a virtual circuit switching process When the source has to send a packet to the destination, the source picks a linkID from the next-link-list eld of the forwarding table A packet is then formed and transmitted Note that the source and destination address of the data MAC frames are set to the value of the linkID, as for the ARREP packets The key corresponding to the linkID can be used to encrypt communication on this link if needed Any intermediate node that receives this data packet will check if it is an intended recipient If so, it changes the linkID eld in the packet to a value selected from the next-link-list eld of its own forwarding table The packet is then transmitted This process continues until the packet reaches the destination We illustrate this process in Figure 428 Here we see that different packets between the same source and destination can take different paths The linkID on each hop is also shown in the gure Note that, during data forwarding, packets are identi ed by secure link identi ers between two neighbors Additionally, the link identi ers change over every hop Hence, an adversary will not be able to track a packet MASK uses pseudonyms only for neighborhood authentication and during the route discovery process Even here, since every node has many pseudonyms, it is secure against traf c analysis If the node had a single pseudonym, then it could have been analyzed the same way as a real identi er MASK, however, uses the real identity of the destination during the route discovery process This is intended to improve the ef ciency of
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