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Secure Ef cient Distance Vector Routing (SEAD)
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Attacks on the sequence number or on the metric could be addressed by authenticating the routing updates sent by DSDV Each node could be required to digitally sign its routing updates, but a problem with the use of asymmetric cryptographic primitives is related to the resource constraints in ad hoc networks Additionally, a compromised node can still modify the sequence numbers and the metrics in the routing updates it sends out This requires that a detection mechanism be coupled with the routing protocol SEAD [59] attempts to address these problems while providing a secure version of DSDV SEAD prevents a malicious node from increasing the sequence number or decreasing the metric associated with a destination in the routing updates the malicious node sends out SEAD does this while making use of one-way hash chains (see 2) SEAD assumes that a diameter for the network can be speci ed This diameter is the maximum distance between any two nodes in the network We denote the diameter by km Note that this implies that this routing protocol would not scale to a large network, but this might be okay since a distance vector routing protocol is usually used for a small or medium-sized network SEAD provides two main mechanisms, namely a scheme to ensure the security of the metric and sequence number authentication as well as a scheme for neighbor authentication We discuss these schemes next
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4411 Metric and Sequence Number Authentication for SEAD SEAD uses one-way hash chains for authentication of metrics and sequence numbers in routing updates This limits the ability of malicious nodes to modify these elds in routing updates Each node during initialization selects a random seed and applies a hash function h(x) repeatedly to that number An element from this hash chain is then used for authentication The detailed process is given below The rst phase is system initialization The following steps constitute this phase 1 Every node in the network constructs its own hash chain by starting with a secret Let sm denote the maximum sequence number that the node expects to use and km denote the maximum number of hops in the network Assume N sm km Then the hash chain has a length of N 1 The hash chain of a node V is arranged into sm groups of km elements, as we show in Figure 411 2 The last element, also referred to as the anchor of the hash chain of node V, h N 1 (secret), is not in any group, as shown in the gure This value is used to authenticate routing update entries that specify this node as the destination The groups are numbered from right to left, as shown in Figure 411 Thus, groups with a lower number are associated with a higher number of hashes of the basic secret Further, hash elements within a group are numbered from left to right starting from 0 and ending at km 2 1 Thus, each element of the hash chain can be uniquely located given two numbers, namely the group id and the index of the element within the group So if the group id is X (note that group id starts from right) and the element number is Y, then this corresponds to j hashes of the secret where j (sm X) km Y 1 We show this in Figure 412 Let us denote this as hc[V, X, Y] to represent the hash element of node V corresponding to a sequence number of X (representing the group id) and number of hops Y (representing the
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