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8121 Identi cation Vehicles typically have a permanent identity that corresponds to the vehicular identity number (VIN) and an ephemeral identity that corresponds to the license plate The latter is normally provided by the registration authorities In addition, vehicles might be provided with an electronic license plate The certi ed identity that a vehicle provides via a wireless link is called an electronic license plate [175] Electronic license plates can be used by a vehicle to become aware of its surroundings This can be possible if every vehicle periodically broadcasts a beacon containing information which includes the electronic license plate Other items included in the beacons could include clock, current speed, and direction Information provided by such beacons could also be used by an infrastructure to suggest the most ef cient routes to a vehicle Such information could also aid in nding drivers who ee the scene of an accident Recovery of stolen cars can also be made easier However, such capabilities also bring with them vulnerabilities that can be leveraged by the adversary if left unprotected A person who desires to steal a car can choose to disable the transmission of beacons if this is possible Impersonation of another vehicle could lead to problems for the genuine owner Jamming of signals that vehicles exchange could also lead to problems if the system is completely dependent on such information Another problem is also related to privacy The information in beacons could also be used to track the location of vehicles This might be undesirable in situations where the vehicle is not involved in any incident An approach to enable privacy in vehicles is to broadcast pseudonyms instead of the actual identities in the beacons Further, the pseudonyms must change over time Further, to make it possible to trace the pseudonyms to the actual owner in exceptional situations (such as accident liabilities), the pseudonyms must have been provided by regional or national authorities This implies that an important research problem is to design privacy-preserving protocols based on the use of temporary pseudonyms which could be traced back if needed 8122 Protection of Messages The messages exchanged in VANETs also need to be protected The actual objectives, however, would depend on the types of messages For example, safety messages are not expected to contain any con dential information Hence, con dentiality would not be needed for such messages Authentication, though, would be very much required since otherwise an adversary could easily create false messages The authentication should also make accountability possible This would make it possible to trace the creator of a message, which would be needed in case of accidents 8123 Key Management Vehicular networks are not expected to face the same resource constraints as faced by ad hoc and sensor networks Therefore asymmetric key operations are very feasible A problem would be related to privacy, however Use of public keys can very easily lead to loss of privacy This is because typically public keys can be used to infer the actual identity of the person or the vehicle Hence the concept of anonymous keys has been proposed to address this [173] An anonymous key pair is a public private key pair that is authenticated by a certi cate authority but does not contain information that allows an observer to discover the actual identity of the vehicle or its owner The anonymity also needs to be conditional for liability purposes Thus, this anonymity would not apply when incidents such as accidents occur Hence the key distribution infrastructure has to be designed such that the information about these keys will only be available say with a court warrant
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