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This is even found in nature, where bats use ultrasonic time-of- ight ranging The GPS concept that we saw previously also makes use of the time-of- ight technique Time-of- ight technique can be used with several underlying technologies such as visible light, infrared (IR), radio frequency (RF), and ultrasound (US) In each of these cases the time needed for the RF or sound signal to propagate between the sender and the receiver is measured This time is called the time of ight The distance between the sender and the receiver is then estimated based on the time of ight multiplied by the speed of the corresponding waves A potential drawback of these systems is that, since these systems (barring ultrasound based systems) operate at the speed of light, the devices require fast-processing hardware (typically nanosecond precision) for measuring the time On the other hand, ultrasoundonly systems do not need nanosecond precision hardware However, the US systems can be mainly used indoors In addition, such signals are harmful to animals This technique can be used in two modes, one-way and two-way In the one-way mode the sender transmits a single bit (signal) while the receiver measures the time at which the bit was received The receiver can then compute the distance between the two Note that in this case the sender will not be able to compute the distance unless the sender gets the time-of- ight information from the receiver Further, this mode also requires that both the sender and the receiver be synchronized in time In case of the two-way mode, the sender transmits a single bit (signal) and the receiver is expected to re ect back the bit towards the sender as soon as the receiver receives the bit The sender thereby measures the time taken for the round trip and uses this to compute the distance between the two In this case the receiver cannot compute the distance While the two-way mode does not require that the sender and receiver be synchronized in time, it does require that the receiver be able to re ect back the bit without any delay In reality, a sequence of bits might be used in both these modes instead of a single bit We next analyze this technique for possible ways in which an adversary can misuse such a localization system We assume that the signals transmitted by the source are neither encrypted nor authenticated We initially look at systems based on signals that propagate at the speed of light such as RF, infrared, and visible light We then focus on the ultrasound-based systems Consider the one-way mode An important property of the time-of- ight technique is that, if the underlying technology is IR or visible light or RF, then an attacker of either type (internal or external) cannot speed up the signal As a result an external attacker can only increase the estimated distance between two nodes by jamming and replaying the signal later Such an attacker will not be able to decrease the estimated distance An internal attacker other than the sender and the receiver can also achieve the same effect This will result in an increased time of ight estimate, thereby leading to an enlarged estimated distance A compromised sender or a receiver on the other hand can lie about the time at which the signal was transmitted or received Note that a compromised receiver might not always make much sense since the receiver would only be fooling itself by modifying the time at which the signal was received from the sender In those scenarios,14 where a compromised sender or receiver exists, the estimated distance can be either larger or smaller than the actual distance Now consider the two-way mode In this case an external attacker can cause both distance reduction and distance enlargement attacks Distance reduction is possible by having the adversary position a node close to the source, which can respond back faster than the
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