An Assembly Language Reference for Beginners in .NET framework

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In deference to people just starting out in assembly language, I have put together a beginner's reference to the most common x86 instructions and called it Appendix A It contains at least a page on every instruction I cover in this book, plus a few additional instructions that everyone ought to know It does not include descriptions on every instruction, but only the most common and most useful Once you've gotten skillful enough to use the more arcane instructions, you should be able to read the NASM documentation (or that of some other assembler) and run with it On page 213 is a sample entry from Appendix A Refer to it during the following discussion The instruction's mnemonic is at the top of the page, highlighted in a box to make it easy to spot while flipping quickly through the appendix To the mnemonic's right is the name of the instruction, which is a little more descriptive than the naked mnemonic
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Flags
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Immediately beneath the mnemonic is a minichart of machine flags in the Flags register I haven't spoken in detail of flags yet, but the Flags register is a collection of 1-bit values that retain certain essential information about the state of the machine for short periods of time Many (but by no means all) x86 instructions change the values of one or more flags The flags may then be individually tested by one of the JMP instructions, which then change the course of the program depending on the state of the flags We'll get into this business of tests and jumps in 10 For now, simply understand that each of the flags has a name, and that for each flag is a symbol in the flags minichart You'll come to know the flags by their two-character symbols in time, but until then, the full names of the flags are shown to the right of the minichart The majority of the flags are not used frequently in beginning assembly language work Most of what you'll be paying attention to, flags-wise, is the Carry flag (CF) It's used, as you might imagine, for keeping track of binary arithmetic when an arithmetic operation carries out of a single
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byte or word There will be an asterisk (*) beneath the symbol of any flag affected by the instruction How the flag is affected depends on what the instruction does You'll have to divine that from the Notes section When an instruction affects no flags at all, the word <none> will appear in the minichart In the example page, the minichart indicates that the NEG instruction affects the Overflow flag, the Sign flag, the Zero flag, the Auxiliary carry flag, the Parity flag, and the Carry flag The ways that the flags are affected depend on the results of the negation operation on the operand specified These ways are summarized in the second paragraph of the Notes section
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NEG Negate (Two's Complement; That Is, Multiply by -1)
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Flags affected: O D I T S Z A P C F F F F F F F F F * * * * * * OF: Overflow flag TF: Trap flag AF: Aux carry DF: Direction flag SF: Sign flag PF: Parity flag IF: Interrupt flag ZF: Zero flag CF: Carry flag
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Legal forms: 8086/8 286 386 486 Pentium NEG NEG NEG NEG NEG NEG Examples: NEG NEG NEG NEG Notes: This is the assembly language equivalent of multiplying a value by -1 Keep in mind that negation is not the same as simply inverting each bit in the operand (Another instruction, NOT, does that) The process is also known as generating the two's complement of a value The two's complement of a value added to that value yields zero -1 = $FF; -2 = $FE; -3 = $FD; and so forth If the operand is 0, CF is cleared and ZF is set; otherwise, CF is set and ZF is cleared If the operand contains the maximum negative value (-128 for 8-bit or -32768 for 16-bit), the operand does not change, but OF and CF are set SF is set if the result is negative, else SF is cleared PF is set if the low-order 8 bits of the result contain an even number of set (1) bits; otherwise, PF is cleared Note You must use a type override specifier (BYTE or WORD) with memory data r8 sr m8 i8 d8 = = = = = AL AH CS DS 8-bit 8-bit 8 bit BL BH CL CH DL DH SS ES memory data immediate data signed displacement r16 = AX BX CX DX BP SP SI DI m16 = 16-bit memory data i16 = 16-bit immediate data d16 = 16-bit signed displacement AL ECX BYTE [BX] ; Negates byte quantity at DS:BX WORD [DI] ; Negates word quantity at DS:BX r8 m8 r16 m16 r32 m32 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
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