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You can fashion searches that will nd these variants, but doing so requires precision and a clear understanding of the search syntax of the particular program being used by the investigator For instance, in an investigation for a large distributor, over 4 terabytes of e-mail and user les from personal computers, le servers, and e-mail servers were collected and had to be searched for relevant documents Users did not use private or home directories on the corporate network, but had instead saved the majority of their les in common or group directories accessible to a large number of people This resulted in having to search several million les Complex search terms were used instead of single key words This helped to identify the most relevant documents quickly Out of the several million initial les, 200,000 les were identi ed as relevant in a 10-week span Another thing to keep in mind is that certain terms are almost useless as key words Virtually any search term of four characters or less will result in massive false positive28 results This does not mean that such searches should never be run if you have the human resources necessary to separate the wheat from the chaff, but longer, more complex searches will likely be more fruitful (b) KNOWN FILE SEARCHES (HASH VALUES) In some cases it may be possible to search large sets of data very ef ciently without using key words at all If an investigator is looking for a known electronic le within a set of data (eg, a memo that an executive claims he or she never received), a hash value search may be the best way to proceed Hash values are unique numbers calculated by performing a xed mathematical formula or algorithm against all of the data in a le The resulting hash of the le is a very long unique value that identi es the le and can be used to search for additional copies of the le within a large data set Hashing every le in a large data set will allow an investigator to identify a known le by searching for its hash value Once the hash values are calculated, this type of search is much faster than searching through the le data itself Hash values are also useful for identifying identical les within a data set An investigator merely needs to sort the data by hash value to nd les that are identical even though the le names may be different (Hash values are generally calculated on the le data only, not on the associated metadata such as le names and dates) This is particularly useful for identifying all copies of an incriminating le even if a user has changed the le name One caveat about hash values is that they will only identify two les as identical if the contents of the le are absolutely the same If one comma, space, or letter is changed within the le, the hash value will also change
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Up to this point our discussion has centered on active les stored on a computer system, backup tape, server, or other electronic media One of the beauties of computer forensics is that an investigator is not limited to examining these active les When les are deleted from a computer hard drive, the operating system typically just removes references to the data in the le system The actual le data is typically not removed from the drive until the operating system needs the space to store other data Although this unallocated space generally cannot be seen using normal operating system tools (eg, Windows Explorer), it can be seen, searched, and sorted by computer forensic tools Some data in unallocated space will be fully recoverable as if it were never deleted Other data may consist of le fragments that have been partially overwritten While such data may not be fully recoverable, it may still provide clues about the computer user s activities Such tools can also search through the space at the end of les between the end-of- le marker and the end of the cluster in which the active le data resides This slack space that is not being used by any active le may contain bits of data from les long ago marked for deletion from the hard drive Forensic tools can search for and nd data stored in these spaces that might otherwise go undetected
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