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liability is not a liability in the normal sense of the word because it is an obligation to purchase an asset at its market value) To date, no consensus has developed, and most appraisers seem to ignore the issue or list it as a factor that has been considered Leveraged ESOPs present additional problems to the appraiser beyond the scope of this book (k) VALUATIONS FOR MARITAL DISSOLUTIONS The classic de nition of fair market value is not always appropriate for a business valuation to be used in a divorce proceeding This is particularly true in the case of professional practices that cannot be sold The standard of value may not be clear from the statutes or the case law It is imperative that the appraiser should seek guidance from an attorney with regard to the standard of value and the ways in which that standard can be applied to the case at hand The date as of which the marital estate is to be valued frequently is not clear from the statutes or case law and can, in some states, be set at the discretion of the trier of fact (l) RESTRICTIVE AGREEMENTS The existence of certain restrictive agreements can be determinative of value for estate tax purposes If such an agreement restricts the sale of the stock during the stockholder s lifetime and obligates the estate to sell after death, and if the price is readily ascertainable from the agreement (and was reasonable at the time the agreement was signed), then the agreement is normally determinative of the value for estate tax purposes However, where the parties to the agreement are family members, there is the possibility that Internal Revenue Code (IRC) 14, Special Valuation Rules, will apply and require a different valuation standard This question should be resolved by the attorney for the estate (m) S CORPORATIONS There is no consensus among appraisers as to the effects of the Subchapter S election on value Some appraisers simply adjust the earnings of the S corporation to a C corporation basis These methods assume that the S election has no effect on value Other appraisers have concluded that the premium can be as much as 100 percent or more, depending on the payout ratio (Schackelford, 1988) The premium, if any, attributable to a minority interest in an S Corporation is derived from the tax bene t associated with the avoidance of the corporate level income tax Any such calculation of the tax advantage associated with the avoidance of corporate tax must inherently assume that the S advantage will remain unchanged in perpetuity In fact it can be lost by changes within the legal structure of the company or its ownership or by changes in the tax code Moreover, because it reduces the type and number of possible purchasers of the stock, an increment to the discount for lack of marketability seems warranted (n) START-UP COMPANIES Start-up companies are all future, no past; therefore, the guideline company approach will be of limited use in appraising a start-up company Some form of discounted future bene t approach must be used The projections will be of the utmost importance, and, in the case of a high-technology company, the appraiser will need signi cant input from an expert familiar with the technology and its market potential The present value discount rate associated with an unproven business is used Venture capitalists typically employ expected rates of return ranging upward of 20 percent to 40 percent in determining the value of a start-up business, depending on the nature of the contemplated enterprise and the perceived degree of risk (o) NONVOTING STOCK Many corporations have a voting and a nonvoting common stock, which presents a valuation problem One Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) study indicates a value differential of about eight percent between high vote and low vote common shares where voting power is the only difference in the rights of each class Courts have been erratic on this question In one case, the court held that the voting stock, which constituted 1 percent of the equity, had 40 percent of the value However, in other cases, the courts were more moderate, and a number of cases have used relatively modest discounts for nonvoting stock, generally about ve percent A 5 percent to 10 percent differential seems reasonable in considering minority interest blocks
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