Deployment Paradigms in Java

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When considering Web applications, there are two basic deployment paradigms to consider those that involve Web browsers as application clients and those that don't
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Most interactive Web applications assume that a Web browser interface will be used to view and navigate their content A browser has two primary jobs: to communicate with a Web server based on user directives and to render the content it receives from that server in response Here we're interested in the efficiency of browser-to-server communication, not in its rendering details With regard to this efficiency, it is important to note the version of HTTP that your client browsers speak Today most browsers, including current versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer, speak HTTP 11 A few older browsers, such as Netscape 475, speak HTTP 10 Depending on the nature of your client base and the platforms they use, you may not be able to assume that everyone speaks HTTP 11 Thus, it is important to develop a profile of your clients and their connectivity technologies Knowing what version of HTTP is supported by the client browsers of your application, as well as what versions are relevant to any additional intermediate network hardware such as routers and switches, is important in understanding whether optimizations associated with a particular protocol version will have an impact on scalability or performance Right now, things are pretty simple because HTTP 11 has been adopted widely But, if a new version of HTTP is developed, it
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will be important to understand which parts of your architecture are affected and how Nevertheless, to keep things simple in this chapter, our discussion will focus on HTTP 11
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Applications with Nonbrowser Clients
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Web servers don't always have Web browsers as clients This can be true if your application involves a special client that retrieves information from a Web server or if you have multiple clients for your data (Web browsers, other software agents, etc) and you want to consolidate your data serving If that's the case, you may be concerned about data transfer rates Again, the question arises: Why a message-based protocol instead of a binary protocol Since HTTP is deployed on top of TCP/IP, you may be tempted to think that its overhead is too costly for such scenarios Depending on the application, you may be right Certainly, there's no need to shovel data between client and server using HTTP just for the fun of it For example, if the communication doesn't have to be synchronous (ie, it's not interactive), a synchronous approach like HTTP can often yield worse performance Also, TCP provides guaranteed delivery; yet there are many application design scenarios where such guarantees aren't really necessary For other kinds of deployment, the primary clients aren't browsers instead, they're wireless PDAs, integrated voice response (IVR) systems, or even software agents running on remote machines Just like Web browsers, these types of client want to provide access to data (often the same data that's delivered to Web browser clients) However, given their limited resources or specific nature, you might be tempted to use an alternative (possibly binary) protocol Again, this may turn out to work best We can't dissect every possible protocol and every possible client/server relationship, so it's difficult to evaluate Still, the performance difference between a non-HTTP protocol and HTTP may be less than you think This is particularly true given how the most recent version of HTTP 11 works in terms of its support for caching and persistent connections Keep in mind that, if you don't use something like HTTP, you may need to develop not only a custom protocol but also a custom server to process requests For HTTP serving, both free and commercial products already exist that have proven to be efficient and scalable However, if you choose to use your own protocol for your application needs, the request processing will then be in your hands and you'll have to develop a novel solution from the ground up Before you go down that path, it may be wise to reconsider what you're giving up In fact, as we'll discuss in greater detail later in the chapter, there are at least three major scalability/performance reasons for using HTTP 11 as the basis for communication between Web servers and nonbrowser clients Here they are now, in a nutshell:
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Connection management: The Web server already provides a fast and scalable way to give access to the data objects you want to make public It takes care of issuing connections to clients (ie, assigning a thread to an incoming request), persisting them when directed, and tearing them down when done (or returning them to a thread pool) Thus, it handles basic network connection management (and then some) Instead of spending your time reinventing the wheel and possibly having the result compete with the Web server for resources, locks, and the like it's typically better to let the Web server own the job of connection management and find a way to integrate your back-end software so that the server directs application requests to it ASAP Intermediate network support: Network communication on the Internet is centered around HTTP Correspondingly, many intermediate network ele-ments (ie, routers) have a great deal of built-in HTTP-based caching support Although a proprietary protocol might traverse the same network path as an HTTP request, it can't benefit from reusing cached HTTP data Concurrent request processing: The majority of Web servers already support parallel request processing (derived from either pipelined requests or concurrent sessions)
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Increasingly, they're handling massive numbers of concurrent connections with highly multithreaded deployments and so enjoy significant parallelism without significant overhead
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