QoS Policy Propagation in .NET framework

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Cisco has introduced a useful proprietary feature called quality of service (QoS) policy propagation via Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Unfortunately, this name is misleading The feature does not propagate QoS policies between routers using BGP It sets BGP attributes that can be used to make QoS policy decisions, but the policy itself comes from a QoS policy management host that QoS element management implements individually on a set of routers This feature allows matching on a series of conditions and setting QoS actions based on those matches (see Table 412) It does not directly affect QoS, but marks packets so they can be recognized by specific QoS mechanisms, such as queuing, committed access rate (CAR) shaping, and weighted random early detect (WRED) The new IETF Outbound Route Filtering (ORF) work, for which several variations are in draft, actually does transfer policies in BGP (Figure 423)
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Figure 423 TMN and ORF
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It is intended to reduce the amount of BGP information that needs to be transmitted by exchanging the inbound filters that each BGP speaker would apply, so its peer can apply these filters to outbound traffic and not send what will, in any case, be filtered out ORF applies only to routing packets, not to data packets
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During my days as a US government contractor, I had a great deal of difficulty getting an order placed for some operationally critical equipment In response to my pleas, the contracting officer explained, My job has nothing to do with you getting your work done My job is to see that the Federal Property Management Regulations are properly enforced In other words, millions could be spent to be sure no one received one dollar more than their entitlement, but not one cent to get missions accomplished Again and again in enterprises, I have watched with dismay as financial managers insisted on being able to track in infinite detail the usage of network resources, so they could properly charge back each user s share of resources The fundamental problem with their doing so, however, is that the resources required for the desired level of accounting sometimes exceed the cost of the resources being used It would be far more cost-effective for the enterprise simply to treat the network as a general overhead cost, much as the cost of mowing the lawn is treated Things become more complex in a service provider environment My colleague, Francis Ovenden, observes that what you cannot measure, you cannot bill If a provider cannot bill, it will receive no revenue and rather quickly fail Simple billing charges a flat rate by the speed of access facilities But as differentiated services come into play, as different user groups share common facilities and really need costs to be allocated fairly, and so on, more powerful accounting is needed Many of the accounting categories of interest are identifiable by some of the same patterns that were matched as part of routing policy New actions, however, become involved for accounting (see Table 413) There s certainly an opportunity to extend RPSL to include accounting actions You might declare that you want byte and packet counts on all traffic associated with a given route or community You need to distinguish between the collection of raw accounting information and the interpretation of it For example, you might want to base your pricing on geographic location It s not necessary to decide the area in real time, as long as you can correlate prefixes or communities with geographic locations in non-real-time postprocessing In like manner, if you want different rates depending on time of day, the log of raw accounting data will usually be timestamped To do this, RPSL needs to be understood in order to be able to specify forwarding plane actions as well as control plane actions Today, you can have a control plane action such as AS path prepending From [RFC 2622]:
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4 Table 413 Accounting Match and Action Events SOURCE Ingress interface MATCH TOS or diffserv code point Incoming interface AS path expression Incoming MED Community Next hop Origin code Source address/prefix Destination address/prefix ACTION Create accounting bucket (with summarization period) Count matching packet Count matching bytes Count matching packets with specified QoS Count errors
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In the following example, AS1 injects its static routes (routes which are members of the set AS1:RS-STATIC-ROUTES) to the interAS routing protocol and appends AS1 twice to their AS paths
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aut-num: AS1 import: protocol STATIC into BGP4 from AS1 action aspathprepend(AS1, AS1); accept AS1:RS-STATIC-ROUTES
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But, in a different example from RFC 2622, the forwarding plane action of reverse path verification is implicit:
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In the following example, AS1 imports a different set of unicast routes for multicast reverse path forwarding from AS2:
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