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There have been some spectacular routing failures in the Internet due to midlevel ISPs inappropriately deaggregating routes they receive and suddenly adding thousands of routes to the Internet routing table The routing architect of an AS can form reasonable expectations of the number of prefixes that an AS expects to receive from another AS These expectations can come from a routing registry or from administrative agreements between the peers For a typical customer of an ISP, the maximum number of expected prefixes is probably
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under 10 If you are a tier 1 provider connecting to a peer, you will probably receive on the order of 30 to 50 percent of the default-free routing zone Typically, bandwidth rather than route processing limits routers in this application When an ISP buys transit, it may receive 130 to 150 percent of the DFZ from each of its upstreams See Tables 123 and 124 for more information
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A warm, tingling bubble bath is a delight; a tidal wave is definitely to be avoided And so it is with network traffic A few ICMP queries are quite normal A flood of pings represents an error at best and a deliberate attack at worst Known ping-based attacks include simple flooding, smurfing, and the ping of death There are any number of protocol messages that, at either customer or interprovider interfaces, should be limited to a plausible rate
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Remember that routing policies are actually internal to the router, and are not part of the update Import policies apply to updates received in the Adj-RIB-In, and only those that are acceptable under the policy filters go into the main RIB In like manner, RIB information goes through advertising policies before it is placed in the Adj-RIB-Out to be advertised to neighbors It is not unreasonable, therefore, to assume that when a policy changes, policy filters need to be reapplied to determine the acceptable policies The trend in minimizing churn due to policy changes is to implement a combination of soft refresh and outbound route filtering The trend in minimizing churn involving partial failures of routers involves graceful restart and outbound route filtering Traditionally, when a policy changed, the interface(s) were reset to force reexamination of the relevant peer RIB A hard reset of an interface, however, can result in the need to transfer and filter an entire Internet routing table, which can take several minutes and impose significant central processing unit (CPU) demands (see Table 125)
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Table 123 Typical Upstream Advertisements to Customer Edge FRACTION 10% 20% 70% UPSTREAM ADVERTISES 13 D 03 D Default
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The Provider-to-Provider Border Table 124 Typical Edge Advertisements to Upstreams FRACTION 50% 20% 30% UPSTREAM ACCEPTS Aggregate and a more-specific route to the ISP edge router Advertise 10 or more routes to the ISP edge router Single route to the ISP edge router
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How do you use these soft reset commands Between a local router and a neighbor, when both support route refresh, you can use dynamic soft inbound refresh When not all routers support route refresh, and you want to avoid the convergence delays associated with hard reset, you can use neighbor soft reconfiguration The drawback to this method is that it is memory-intensive It should not be surprising that the command that dynamically resets outbound peerings is called outbound soft refresh
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In the most general sense, an exchange point is a place where ISPs exchange routes and traffic without settlements or transit provider payments There are costs to connect the ISP to the exchange point location, and there are usually shared costs for operating the exchange The first exchange points were quite informal In an era when the high-speed EGP core used 56-Kbps lines, considerable delay could come from backhauling to the core Several academic institutions established routing nodes (commer-
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Table 125 Hard and Soft Reset Operational Implications TYPE OF RESET Hard GOOD NEWS Minimal memory requirement BAD NEWS Forces total refresh of table and potentially long reconvergence No effect on inbound
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