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The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS
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OSPF flow for general traffic and backup Static route preferred for heavy traffic
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Figure 1110 OSPF traffic engineering workaround
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for multicast OSPF (MOSPF) capable routers, although MOSPF was not widely deployed A router may be multicast-capable or not; it may be able to originate multicasts only, receive multicasts only, or originate and receive multicasts A router may be TE-capable or not; it may be able to originate TE traffic only, receive it only, or send and receive it With both MOSPF and TE, OSPF routers that do not support their functionality can still play a part in distributing topological information that is used to determine multicast and TE routes In other words, the set of all OSPF routers carries control information for TE, even though some of those routers may not be capable of TE forwarding To support GMPLS, the control network must be able to advertise the state of interfaces that are not packet-capable Obviously, a nonpacket router cannot have a link state database of its own that can be synchronized in the usual OSPF manner OSPF-TE thus requires proxy routers for non-PSC interfaces The need for separation between OSPF and OSPF-TE topologies, which may be inside an area, means that opaque LSA enhancement doesn t quite fit There are needs to flood to all TE routers within an area, which are not within the subnet, area, and domain scopes of the defined OSPF opaque LSA OSPF-TE capable routers have two link state databases, the standard one and the TE topology You can think of the standard database as a control plane database for TE, although it still has its conventional role with respect to non-TE traffic There are separate adjacencies for the general OSPF and OSPF-TE databases To have TE in an area, a router must establish adjacency with another TE router in the area, but the two routers need not be on the same subnet Each subnet in a system supporting TE, however, must have at least one router that runs OSPF-TE on at least one of its interfaces (see Figure 1111)
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Capable of TE and non-TE forwarding and control Capable of TE amd non-TE control, non-TE forwarding only
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Figure 1111 OSPF-TE subtopology
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A new option bit setting in OSPF identifies TE versus non-TE OSPF routers TE LSAs are exchanged only with neighboring TE routers The challenge comes when flooding to non-neighbor TE nodes The current opaque LSA scopes do not quite match the requirements of TE for example, there is an opaque LSA scope of area-wide, but there is not a scope of only TE routers in the area Flooding in an area or routing domain introduces considerable overhead, and flooding TE-specific information over routes that contain no TE devices causes needless overhead Optimized flooding in TE environments is not a totally solved problem, and you should closely evaluate how vendors implement their solutions until an industrywide consensus emerges Table 117 shows OSPF additional per-router information for TE and GMPLS
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OSPF-TE recognizes that SONET and RPR rings have some fundamental differences from other media, and adds support for them (see Table 118) With the exception of the following, no additional changes will be required to this LSA for TE compatibility
The LSA format and flooding scope remains unchanged from the existing type 2, except that the order of announcement is significant To provide for non-PSC routers, the node announcements for a subnet must start with the PSC gateway to the ring
The Intraprovider Core: IP/MPLS Table 117 OSPF Additional Per-Router Information for TE and GMPLS
TE selection criteria The values can be a series of resources that may be used as the criteria for traffic engineering (typically with the aid of a signaling protocol such as RSVP-TE or CR-LDP) Bandwidth-based LSPs* Priority-based LSPs Backup LSP Link cost List all the CSPF algorithms supported Can also be an OSPF ABR and/or ASBR See Table 116 Label stack depth limit TLV follows This is applicable only when the PSC flag is set MPLS signaling protocol support TLV follows
Constraint SPF algorithms support TLV Label edge router capability Interface switching capability descriptor STA bit SIG bit
* Bandwidth criteria are often used as metrics for PSC and TDM nodes, although the unit of bandwidth is apt to be vendor-specific
Priority-based traffic switching is relevant only to PSC nodes Nodes supporting this criterion will be able to interpret the EXP bits on the MPLS header to prioritize the traffic across the same LSP
Backup criteria refer to whether or not the node is capable of finding an automatic protection path if the originally selected link fails Such a local recovery is specific to the node and may not need to be notified to the upstream node