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A special niche where the ISP can manage much of the end-to-end connectivity to the end customer is in multitenant buildings, such as apartments, office complexes, and hotels (see Figure 712) The economics here allow the ISP to place a multiplexer or other aggregation device in a common area of the multitenant building and typically to connect to the users with LAN technology Cable providers already have significant penetration into residential and hotel facilities, although they may lack the appropriate in-building LAN technology See Table 73 for a summary of optical access alternatives One possible commercial niche is the building local exchange carrier (BLEC), which provides Ethernet connectivity inside multitenant buildings and concentrates the traffic into a single, possibly diversely routed, stream that goes onto optical or high-speed wireless transport Such firms usually design
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THE FIRST HUNDRED METERS (OR SO) PROBLEM Those new technologies that operate at multimegabit rates can only travel, at best, a few hundred meters on copper facilities before they must be converted to optical facilities This is not an issue in multitenant buildings, but it is a challenge in residential areas or areas populated by small business The practical reality is that the end subscribers in single-tenant buildings need to connect to local copper-to-optical aggregation units, typically mounted in outdoor pedestal housings Outdoor pedestals are already prevalent in the community antenna television (CATV) industry, even for nondata applications They may also be used for basic telephony, especially as a means of range extension or avoiding the need for more copper pairs when the existing cables are fully utilized
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based on massive oversubscription, with capacity requirements computed at the building, local-office, and regional levels This can work reasonably well with typical office uses, especially when the user applications are things such as Web browsing and electronic mail I would certainly want to get a service level agreement from the BLEC if I were going to run voice, video or critical client/server applications over their service Practical BLECs may very well need to rate-limit traffic at the user port level and have different service rates They also face a chicken-and-egg situation:
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Figure 712 Connectivity to multitenant buildings
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The Provider Edge: Layer 1, Layer 2, and the PSTN Table 73 Optical Access Alternatives ACRONYM FTTB FTTC FTTH MEANING Fiber to the building Fiber to the curb Fiber to the home APPLICATION Multitenant SOHO with local copper cabling Optical connectivity to each subscriber
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They are a reliable alternative only when they have significant market penetration into a given area, but they often have to negotiate agreements with every landlord and their deployment may be slow There may be niches where BLECs are especially attractive (for example, enterprises with multiunit buildings scattered in a metropolitan area, such as healthcare or educational buildings) Essentially, the BLEC takes over the role of running a campus network when there is no physical network If tariffs permit the BLEC to provide IP services rather than raw bandwidth, BLECs may be especially viable for providing multicast services
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Traditional copper telephone circuits are limited in the bandwidth they can provide using analog technologies or transitional technologies such as T1/E1 or ISDN New techniques, however, provide broadband connectivity to the end user, either with new kinds of electronics on cable or with completely different media
Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a family of technologies for high-speed transmission primarily over existing copper pairs A wide variety of technologies, shown in Table 74, fall under the general DSL framework Fiber alternatives also can be used in CATV ADSL places a small splitter unit at the customer premises, from which analog voice services run However, many installers prefer to use a nonvoice pair when available Using a separate pair eliminates the splitter cost and simplifies troubleshooting The equivalent splitter at the CO is a function called the ADSL transmission unit central office (ATU-C) DSL access multiplexers (DSLAMs) at the CO contain ATU-C functions for each customer loop, as well as DACSlike functions that transfer the customer data bits to trunks The ATU-C also splits off the analog voice channels, which go to conventional channel banks in the CO
7 Table 74 xDSL Alternatives ACRONYM ADSL MEANING Asymmetric DSL CHARACTERISTICS 15 8 Mbps downstream; 64 800 Kbps upstream; simultaneous data and analog voice T1/E1 replacement; no analog capability