CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network in VS .NET

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CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network
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Table 512 Cause value 3 16 17 21
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Cause diagnostics Meaning No route to destination Normal call clearing User busy Call rejected Diagnostics Condition Condition CCBS indicator Call rejected condition
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in the internal ISUP release message The reporting of the cause diagnostics to the gsmSCF enables the CAMEL service to analyse the reason for call release and decide on further action From gsmSCF to gsmSSF the gsmSCF may include diagnostics in the cause parameter in the CAP release call operation and in the call gap operation When the gsmSCF receives a disconnect or busy noti cation, for example, then the gsmSCF may copy the diagnostics that it receives from the gsmSSF to the diagnostics in CAP release call 52102 Enhancement to User Interaction When PA or PC is used, then the gsmSCF may order the playing of a concatenation of 16 prerecorded announcements For CAMEL phase 2, a maximum of ve pre-recorded announcements may be ordered with a single PA or PC operation This increase in number of messages per PA or PC operation enhances the exibility of the user interaction 52103 Called Party Number Length In CAMEL phase 3, the CdPN may contain a minimum of 0 digits, ie the number consists of a number frame only In certain markets (eg North America), speci c operator numbers may be identi ed with a designated nature of address value, without the need for further digits A calling subscriber does not have the ability to dial such a number; however, number translation in the MSC may yield such a number The resulting operator number, not containing any digits, may be reported in the answer noti cation to the gsmSCF Examples of such operator numbers may be found in ANSI ISUP, T1113 1995 [160] The encoding of a CdPN in CAP also allows for a CdPN that does not contain any digits ANSI ISUP, T1113 1995 [160] does not specify any nature of address for CgPN related to an operator number without digits
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53 CAMEL Control of GPRS
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General packet radio system (GPRS) was introduced in GSM R97 GPRS allows for the establishment of PS data connections via the GSM networks GPRS uses the same RAN as GSM, but a different core network infrastructure CAMEL control of GPRS is introduced in 3GPP R99 The core network functionality of GPRS is mainly speci ed in the following 3GPP speci cations: 3GPP TS 22060 [64] 3GPP TS 23060 [81] 3GPP TS 29060 [105] GPRS, Service description, stage 1 GPRS, Service description, stage 2 GPRS, GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface
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531 Network Architecture Figure 530 gives a simpli ed representation of the GPRS network Two variants exist for the GPRS network, in as far as the access technology is concerned:
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VPLMN HLR Gr (MAP) SGSN Iu-ps RNC Iu-bis Node-B Uu UE Uu UE UE Iu-bis Node-B Uu Uu UE Gb Gp (GTP) Gn (GTP) BSC A-bis BTS Um UE
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TDMA GPRS the TDMA GPRS uses the TDMA GSM radio access network The radio connection between the subscriber and the core network runs via the BTS and the BSC The data transmission for the GPRS connection uses allocated time slots in the TDMA radio access A GPRS data link may use one or more time slots This GPRS variant is often referred to as 25G W-CDMA GPRS the W-CDMA GPRS uses the W-CDMA radio access network The radio connection between the subscriber and the core network runs via the Node-B and the radio network controller (RNC) The concepts HPLMN and VPLMN are also used for GPRS A GPRS subscriber is permanently registered in the HLR of a particular PLMN; this PLMN is her HPLMN The GPRS subscriber may at any moment be attached to an SGSN in the VPLMN Being attached to an SGSN may be compared with being registered with an MSC The attachment to the SGSN may occur through the TDMA RAN (via BTS and BSC) or through the W-CDMA RAN (via Node-B and RNC) 5311 PDP Context The access control protocol for GPRS is DTAP DTAP is also used for CS call control over the RAN DTAP is speci ed in 3GPP TS 24008 [94] The protocol between the SGSN and the GGSN is GTP In UMTS, GTP may also be used between SGSN and the RNC GTP has a dual purpose: (1) GPRS control this includes attaching to SGSN, creating and terminating a PDP context (PDPc), routing area update (RAU), etc This part of GTP is known as GTP-C (2) Payload transfer this part of GTP is used for transferring the payload through a tunnel The tunnel is the logical data connection that is established between the SGSN and GGSN (2G RAN) or between RNC and GGSN (3G UTRAN) This part of GTP is known as GTP-U Each tunnel through which GTP-U messages may be transferred is associated with a logical control path controlled by GTP-C One GTP-C logical control path may control one or more tunnels (Figure 531)
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