The npipe protocol in Software

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The npipe protocol
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The npipe (and its secure version spipe) protocol uses Windows named pipes managed by the SMB redirector and the Named Pipe File System (NPFS) The client must authenticate to the SMB server as any other client would, using the system provided command-line utility, as follows:
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net use \\RemoteServer\IPC$
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The npipe protocol requires users to have a set of credentials in the domain on which the debugger server runs
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2
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Introduction to the Debuggers
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NOTE The debugger server can interpret up to two formatting commands, %d or %x, that replace them with the debugger process identifier and the debugger thread identifier This capability is handy when you want to attach a debugger without human intervention and ensure name uniqueness For example, the following command lines are expanded as shown:
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C:\> ntsd -server npipe:pipe=pid(%d)tid(%d) notepad C:\> ntsd -server npipe:pipe=pid(%d) notepad C:\> cdb -QR \\AWD-TEST Servers on \\AWD-TEST: Debugger Server - npipe:Pipe=pid(296)tid(608) Debugger Server - npipe:Pipe=pid(3188)
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TCP and its secure version SSL use the TCP/IP stack and are best used when authentication is neither possible nor desired The debug server allows you to specify a specific port or to enable the system to select one for you Alternatively, you can specify a range, and the debugger selects the first one from that range
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0:000> * remote using a specified port 0:000>server tcp:port=5000 0:000> * remote using the first free port 0:000> server tcp:port= 0:000> * remote using a range and ask the debugger to pick the fist one available in the range 0:000>server tcp:port=5000:6000
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The servers started on the system were in this case (Note that the servers command offers the same functionality as the <debuggers> -QR command line, but from within the debugger server console)
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0:000> servers On the client, use <path>\<debugger>exe -remote <options> 0 - Debugger Server - tcp:Port=5000,Server=AWD-TEST 1 - Debugger Server - tcp:Port=4488,Server=AWD-TEST 2 - Debugger Server - tcp:Port=5001:6000,Server=AWD-TEST
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The TCP protocol offers another option, clicon=<client_host>, useful in debugging a server behind firewalls when the debugger client accepts an inbound TCP/IP connection The following line starts the debugger server and tells it to try to connect
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Remote Debugging
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to AWD-TEST on port 5000, and the next line starts the debugger client to wait for the connection request on port 5000
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c:\> ntsd -server tcp:port=5000,clicon=AWD-TEST notepad 2 c:\> ntsd -remote tcp:port=5000,clicon=AWD-TEST
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Other Commands
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Other useful commands in remoting scenarios are listed here (A few have already been used earlier in the chapter)
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endsrv <server_id> stops a debugger server servers lists the debugger servers started by this debugger clients lists the current connected clients remote_exit exits the current debugger client echo is useful to send text messages to other users connected to the same
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debugging session
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2 INTRODUCTION TO THE DEBUGGERS
Process and Kernel Server
So far you ve seen the remote debuggers in action, and you should have a good understanding of them and how to use them The previous methods require having an operator with full access to the remote system to find the proper process identifier, attaching the debugger in server mode, reattaching if the process exits, and so on In some cases, it is not feasible to have the operator doing all this, and there is a better way to resolve the problem The solution is represented by stand-alone debugger servers: a user mode debug server, known as a process server, is implemented in dbgsrvexe; and the kernel mode debug server, known as a KD connection server, is implemented in kdsrvexe We describe the user mode debug server in more detail because the same idea applies to the kernel mode debug server A process server runs on the target system and, in essence, does nothing more than accepting commands from the remote smart clients The accepted commands are similar to what the debugger engine supports, and they offer the capability to debug processes on the target system similar to the way we debug local processes The process server takes the transport option as a parameter, which is visible when querying the target system as a Remote Process Server
C:\>dbgsrv -t npipe:pipe=smart_um C:\>cdb -QR 127001 Servers on 127001: Remote Process Server - npipe:Pipe=smart_um