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Figure 123 Stack usage on x86-64 calling stack
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The rightmost column contains the hexadecimal addresses relative to the rsp value used in Function5 The next column on the left shows the hexadecimal address relative to the rsp value at the Function5 start, before the adjustment So far, the conclusions were based on analyzing the generated code that must be validated in the debugger The sample can be started under the debugger, using the following command line, which launches the 64-bit version of the sample introduced in 2 under a 64-bit debugger:
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In this process, we set a breakpoint on the 02sampleexe!CalledFunction5 function that is hit when we select option 5 from the menu At the breakpoint location, the assumptions described previously can be validated by examining the stack Listing 128 shows the function arguments for each function from the call stack It might be a surprise to see that most parameters are incorrect The first four parameters from Function5 or CalledFunction5 are random values, while the last one has the correct value Listing 128
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0:000> kP Child-SP RetAddr Call Site 00000000`000afe98 00000000`00401973 02sample!CalledFunction5( int64 a = 4202800, int64 b = 8793941677150, int64 c = 0, int64 d = 4202020, int64 e = 5) 00000000`000afea0 00000000`0040171a 02sample!Function5( int64 a = 3684256, int64 b = 0, int64 c = 128094338278281250, int64 d = 3684318, int64 e = 5)+0x13 00000000`000afee0 00000000`00401cf1 02sample!main( unsigned long argc = 0, char ** argv = 0x00000000`00000000)+0x12a 00000000`000aff20 00000000`77d5966c 02sample!mainCRTStartup(void)+0x171 00000000`000aff80 00000000`00000000 kernel32!BaseProcessStart+0x2c
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Why are the values incorrect This is the unfortunate downside of this calling convention combined with symbol information available to the debugger The debugger
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shows the values stored on a stack location corresponding to arguments passed through the registers, and they have random values Furthermore, if one input parameter is used in a function for something else and it is not needed for the remainder of this function, the parameter value is not stored anywhere This parameter can t be recovered by the debugger after this point If it has been stored somewhere, we need to manually find that location and read its value For example, when Function5 in Listing 128 starts its execution, the fist parameter is passed into the register rcx When this function calls CalledFunction5, the same register, rcx, must be filled with the first parameter passed to that function If rcx has not been saved before, and it is not used after the return from CalledFunction5, the compiler does not generate code to preserve it Its value is lost right before the call to CalledFunction5 The situation is a little better for the code compiled using no optimizations, started using the checked build WDK shortcut In checked builds, each function prefix has special code to save all the input parameters, even if none are used The checked version of CalledFunction5 looks much, much better from a debugging perspective, as can be seen in Listing 129 Listing 129
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0:000> uf 02sample!CalledFunction5: 00000000`00401340 4c894c2420 00000000`00401345 4c89442418 00000000`0040134a 4889542410 00000000`0040134f 48894c2408 00000000`00401354 b805000000 00000000`00401359 c3
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The support obtained in the generated checked build from the C/C++ compiler is handy in the development process only Each application s customers expect that the code released to them is highly optimized All memory dumps obtained using the Windows Error Reporting feedback loop described in 13, Postmortem Debugging, will usually be optimized, without the compiler support
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What Are the Local Variable s Values The display variable command, dv, shows the storage holding the local variables For input parameters, the location is the stack parameter passing area, which is not populated in free or optimized builds Because dv usually shows random values for the input variables, the manual discovery process uses our knowledge about the rules
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