Memory Leaks in Software

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allocations from the stack trace, size of each allocation, and finally total size The HEAPSTAT shows which heap the allocation was made on The final part is a list of frames that make up the stack trace As we can see, the bottommost frame is the kernel32 function BaseThreadStart calling into a ThreadWorker function, which calls into the server GetSID function, which forgets to release the memory allocated Although this is essentially the same leak we discovered using UMDH, it should be clear that using LeakDiag can come in handy when you are dealing with leaks that do not originate from the default heap manager
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The !address Extension Command
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The !address extension command comes in very handy when you want to get a quick overview of where the memory in your process is really located The command gives statistics, such as memory region usage in heaps, stack, free, and so on To see for yourself, start notepadexe under the debugger and issue the !address command The first part of the output gives a more in-depth look at the memory usage, and toward the end of the output, you will see the summary
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---------- Usage SUMMARY ------------TotSize Pct(Tots) Pct(Busy) Usage 001d4000 : 009% 1059% : RegionUsageIsVAD 7eeab000 : 9916% 000% : RegionUsageFree 00e0d000 : 069% 8136% : RegionUsageImage 00040000 : 001% 145% : RegionUsageStack 00001000 : 000% 002% : RegionUsageTeb 00120000 : 005% 651% : RegionUsageHeap 00000000 : 000% 000% : RegionUsagePageHeap 00001000 : 000% 002% : RegionUsagePeb 00001000 : 000% 002% : RegionUsageProcessParametrs 00001000 : 000% 002% : RegionUsageEnvironmentBlock Tot: 7fff0000 Busy: 01145000 Largest free region: Base 01014000 - Size 71fec000 9 RESOURCE LEAKS
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This can come in quite handy if you are trying to figure out which tool to use to further track down the leak For example, if you see a large increase in memory usage attributed to a leak, but you do not see any major increase when looking at the RegionUsageHeap (in bold), chances are pretty good that the allocations are originating from non-heap-related memory activity (such as calls to VirtualAlloc) This eliminates precious time spent on running UMDH (tracks heap allocations only), and you can focus your efforts on running a more suitable tool, such as LeakDiag
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Our example is a simple server for illustrative purposes, but imagine an extremely complex server that has been hammered all day long with client requests and is leaking memory Where do you begin to look without any tools Many times, UMDH or LeakDiag can be your answer in these types of situations But wait, you say! UMDH and LeakDiag assume that we have access to the system and can run these tools What about the situations in which you simply get a memory dump of the leaked process and are required to analyze the leak postmortem In this case, runtime leak detection tools are not an option Fortunately, some powerful commands exist in the debugger that allow you to do some pretty amazing leak analysis
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The !heap Extension Command
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The !heap extension command is part of the debugger extension extsdll and is an extremely powerful command that allows users to get an in-depth look at the memory consumption of a process For example, the !heap extension command is capable of searching the address space for leaked blocks, performing custom searches on all heaps, giving detailed stack traces of allocations, setting breakpoints in the heap manager, and much more In this section, we use a modified version of the 09basicmleakexe application used in the previous section The client code is nearly identical with the exception of the return type Instead of returning a raw SID structure, the server returns a pointer to a CIdentity class instance The CIdentity class instance simply wraps the SID structure in a more programmer-friendly fashion
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class CIdentity { public: virtual BOOL GetUsername(WCHAR** pUserName) { return FALSE; } virtual BOOL GetDomain(WCHAR** pUserName) { return FALSE; } protected: CIdentity(PVOID pIdentBlob):m_pIdentityBlob(pIdentBlob){}; virtual ~CIdentity(){}; PVOID GetBlob() { return m_pIdentityBlob; } PVOID }; m_pIdentityBlob;
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The overall idea is for the CIdentity class to hold the raw data representing an identity and expose a set of virtual functions that can interpret the data For example, the virtual function GetUserName returns the username of the identity When a new identity surfaces, a subclass has to be derived from the CIdentity class and the appropriate functions overridden The main point here is that the client always works
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