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Once you make a member variable a private member variable, there is no way to change its value (or to reference the member variable in any other way) except by using one of the member functions That means that the compiler will enforce the hiding of
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Display 64 Class with Private Members (part 1 of 3)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 #include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> using namespace std;
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class DayOfYear { public: void input( ); void output( ); void set(int newMonth, int newDay); //Precondition: newMonth and newDay form a possible date
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This is an improved version of the class DayOfYear that we gave in Display 63
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void set(int newMonth); //Precondition: 1 <= newMonth <= 12 //Postcondition: The date is set to the first day of the given month int getMonthNumber( ); //Returns 1 for January, 2 for February, etc int getDay( ); private: int month; Private members int day; }; int main( ) { DayOfYear today, bachBirthday; cout << "Enter today s date:\n"; todayinput( ); cout << "Today s date is "; todayoutput( ); cout << endl; bachBirthdayset(3, 21); cout << "J S Bach s birthday is "; bachBirthdayoutput( ); cout << endl; if ( todaygetMonthNumber( ) == bachBirthdaygetMonthNumber( ) && todaygetDay( ) == bachBirthdaygetDay( ) ) cout << "Happy Birthday Johann Sebastian!\n"; else cout << "Happy Unbirthday Johann Sebastian!\n"; return 0; } //Uses iostream and cstdlib: void DayOfYear::set(int newMonth, int newDay)
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Note that the function name set is overloaded You can overload a member function just like you can overload any other function
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Display 64 Class with Private Members (part 2 of 3)
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42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 { if ((newMonth >= 1) && (newMonth <= 12)) month = newMonth; else { cout << "Illegal month value! Program aborted\n"; exit(1); } if ((newDay >= 1) && (newDay <= 31)) day = newDay; else { cout << "Illegal day value! Program aborted\n"; exit(1); } } //Uses iostream and cstdlib: void DayOfYear::set(int newMonth) { if ((newMonth >= 1) && (newMonth <= 12)) month = newMonth; else { cout << "Illegal month value! Program aborted\n"; exit(1); } day = 1; } int DayOfYear::getMonthNumber( ) { return month; } int DayOfYear::getDay( ) { return day; } //Uses iostream and cstdlib: void DayOfYear::input( ) { cout << "Enter the month as a number: "; cin >> month; cout << "Enter the day of the month: "; cin >> day;
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Private members may be used in member function definitions (but not elsewhere)
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Display 64 Class with Private Members (part 3 of 3)
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86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 if ((month < 1) || (month > 12) || (day < 1) || (day > 31)) { cout << "Illegal date! Program aborted\n"; exit(1); } } void DayOfYear::output( )
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<The rest of the definition of DayOfYear::output is given in Display 63>
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Enter today s date: Enter the month as a number: 3 Enter the day of the month: 21 Today s date is March 21 J S Bach s birthday is March 21 Happy Birthday Johann Sebastian!
public:
public member variable
the implementation of the data for the class DayOfYear If you look carefully at the program in Display 64, you will see that the only place the member variable names month and day are used is in the de nitions of the member functions There is no reference to todaymonth, todayday, bachBirthdaymonth, or bachBirthdayday anyplace outside the de nitions of member functions All the items that follow the word public: (in this case the member functions) are said to be public, which means that they can be referenced by name anyplace There are no restrictions on the use of public members Any member variables can be either public or private Any member functions can be public or private However, normal good programming practices require that all member variables be private and that typically most member functions be public You can have any number of occurrences of public and private access speci ers in a class de nition Every time you insert the label
public: