Function Basics in Software

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Display 38 Local Variables (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 //Computes the average yield on an experimental pea growing patch #include <iostream> using namespace std; double estimateOfTotal(int minPeas, int maxPeas, int podCount); //Returns an estimate of the total number of peas harvested //The formal parameter podCount is the number of pods //The formal parameters minPeas and maxPeas are the minimum //and maximum number of peas in a pod int main( ) { int maxCount, minCount, podCount; double averagePea, yield;
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This variable named averagePea is local to the main function
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cout << "Enter minimum and maximum number of peas in a pod: "; cin >> minCount >> maxCount; cout << "Enter the number of pods: "; cin >> podCount; cout << "Enter the weight of an average pea (in ounces): "; cin >> averagePea; yield = estimateOfTotal(minCount, maxCount, podCount) * averagePea; coutsetf(ios::fixed); coutsetf(ios::showpoint); coutprecision(3); cout << "Min number of peas per pod = " << minCount << endl << "Max number of peas per pod = " << maxCount << endl << "Pod count = " << podCount << endl << "Average pea weight = " << averagePea << " ounces" << endl << "Estimated average yield = " << yield << " ounces" << endl; return 0; } double estimateOfTotal(int minPeas, int maxPeas, int podCount) { This variable named double averagePea; averagePea is local to the function estimateOfTotal averagePea = (maxPeas + minPeas)/20; return (podCount * averagePea); }
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Scope Rules
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Enter minimum and maximum number of peas in a pod: 4 6 Enter the number of pods: 10 Enter the weight of an average pea (in ounces): 05 Min number of peas per pod = 4 Max number of peas per pod = 6 Pod count = 10 Average pea weight = 0500 ounces Estimated average yield = 25000 ounces
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When the variable averagePea is given a value in the function call to estimateOfTotal, this does not change the value of the variable in the main function that is also named averagePea Variables that are declared within the body of a function de nition are said to be local to that function or to have that function as their scope If a variable is local to some function, we sometimes simply call it a local variable, without specifying the function Another example of local variables can be seen in Display 35 The de nition of the function totalCost in that program begins as follows:
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double totalCost(int numberParameter, double priceParameter) { const double TAXRATE = 005; //5% sales tax double subtotal;
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local variable scope
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The variable subtotal is local to the function totalCost The named constant TAXRATE is also local to the function totalCost (A named constant is in fact nothing but a variable that is initialized to a value and that cannot have that value changed)
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LOCAL VARIABLES
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Variables that are declared within the body of a function definition are said to be local to that function or to have that function as their scope If a variable is local to a function, then you can have another variable (or other kind of item) with the same name that is declared in another function definition; these will be two different variables, even though they have the same name (In particular, this is true even if one of the functions is the main function)
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Function Basics
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s PROCEDURAL ABSTRACTION
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A person who uses a program should not need to know the details of how the program is coded Imagine how miserable your life would be if you had to know and remember the code for the compiler you use A program has a job to do, such as compiling your program or checking the spelling of words in your paper You need to know what the program s job is so that you can use the program, but you do not (or at least should not) need to know how the program does its job A function is like a small program and should be used in a similar way A programmer who uses a function in a program needs to know what the function does (such as calculate a square root or convert a temperature from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius), but should not need to know how the function accomplishes its task This is often referred to as treating the function like a black box Calling something a black box is a gure of speech intended to convey the image of a physical device that you know how to use but whose method of operation is a mystery because it is enclosed in a black box that you cannot see inside of (and cannot pry open) If a function is well designed, the programmer can use the function as if it were a black box All the programmer needs to know is that if he or she puts appropriate arguments into the black box, then it will take some appropriate action Designing a function so that it can be used as a black box is sometimes called information hiding to emphasize the fact that the programmer acts as if the body of the function were hidden from view Writing and using functions as if they were black boxes is also called procedural abstraction When programming in C++ it might make more sense to call it functional abstraction However, procedure is a more general term than function and computer scientists use it for all function-like sets of instructions, and so they prefer the
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