Standard Template Library in Software

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Standard Template Library
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Note that the names forward iterator, bidirectional iterator, and random-access iterator refer to kinds of iterators, not type names An actual type name would be something like std::vector<int>::iterator, which in this case happens to be a random-access iterator
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OF ITERATOR
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Different containers have different kinds of iterators The following are the main kinds of iterators
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Forward iterators: ++ works on the iterator Bidirectional iterators: Both ++ and -- work on the iterator Random-access iterators: ++, --, and random access all work with the iterator
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Self-Test Exercises
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4 Suppose the vector v contains the letters A , B , C , and D in that order What is the output of the following code
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using std::vector<char>::iterator; iterator i = vbegin( ); i++; cout << *(i + 2) << " "; i--; cout << i[2] << " "; cout << *(i + 2) << " ";
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s CONSTANT AND MUTABLE ITERATORS
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The categories of forward iterator, bidirectional iterator, and random-access iterator each subdivide into two categories constant and mutable depending on how the dereferencing operator behaves with the iterator With a constant iterator the dereferencing operator produces a read-only version of the element With a constant iterator p, you can use *p to assign it to a variable or output it to the screen, for example, but you cannot change the element in the container by, for example, assigning to *p With a mutable iterator p, *p can be assigned a value, and that will change the corresponding element in the container Phrased another way, with a mutable iterator p, *p returns an lvalue The vector iterators are mutable, as shown by the following lines from Display 191:
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cout << "Setting entries to 0:\n"; for (p = containerbegin( ); p != containerend( ); p++) *p = 0;
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constant iterator
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mutable iterator
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Iterators
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If a container has only constant iterators, you cannot obtain a mutable iterator for the container However, if a container has mutable iterators and you want a constant iterator for the container, you can have it You might want a constant iterator as a kind of error checking device if you intend that your code should not change the elements in the container For example, the following will produce a constant iterator for a vector container named container:
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std::vector<char>::const_iterator p = containerbegin( );
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or equivalently
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using std::vector<char>::const_iterator; const_iterator p = containerbegin( );
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With p declared in this way, the following would produce an error message:
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*p = Z ;
For example, Display 192 would behave exactly the same if you changed
using std::vector<int>::iterator;
using std::vector<int>::const_iterator;
and replaced
iterator p;
with
const_iterator p;
However, a similar change would not work in Display 191 because of the following line from the program in Display 191:
*p = 0;
Note that const_iterator is a type name, whereas constant iterator is the name of a kind of iterator However, every iterator of a type named const_iterator will be a constant iterator
CONSTANT ITERATOR
A constant iterator is an iterator that does not allow you to change the element at its location
Standard Template Library
s REVERSE ITERATORS
Sometimes you want to cycle through the elements in a container in reverse order If you have a container with bidirectional iterators, you might be tempted to try the following:
iterator p; for (p = containerend( ); p != containerbegin( ); p--) cout << *p << " ";
reverse iterator
This code will compile, and you may be able to get something like this to work on some systems, but there is something fundamentally wrong with it: containerend( ) is not a regular iterator but only a sentinel, and containerbegin( ) is not a sentinel Fortunately, there is an easy way to do what you want For a container with bidirectional iterators, there is a way to reverse everything using a kind of iterator known as a reverse iterator The following will work ne:
reverse_iterator rp; for (rp = containerrbegin( ); rp != containerrend( ); rp++) cout << *rp << " ";
rbegin( ) rend( )
The member function rbegin( ) returns an iterator located at the last element The member function rend( ) returns a sentinel the marks the end of the elements in the reverse order Note that for an iterator of type reverse_iterator, the increment operator, ++, moves backward through the elements In other words, the meanings of -- and ++ are interchanged The program in Display 193 demonstrates a reverse iterator reverse_iterator type also has a constant version, which is named const_ reverse_iterator