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If you have not yet done so, you should read 10 on pointers and arrays and also read Section 73 of 7, which covers vectors Vectors are one of the container template classes in the STL Iterators are a generalization of pointers This section shows how to use iterators with vectors Other container template classes that we introduce in Section 192 use iterators in the same way So, all that you learn about iterators in this section will apply across a wide range of containers rather than applying solely to vectors This re ects one of the basic tenets of the STL philosophy: The semantics, naming, and syntax for iterator usage should be (and is) uniform across different container types
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An iterator is a generalization of a pointer, and in fact is typically even implemented using a pointer, but the abstraction of an iterator is designed to spare you the details of the implementation and give you a uniform interface to iterators that is the same across different container classes Each container class has its own iterator types, just like each data type has its own pointer type But just as all pointer types behave essentially the same for dynamic variables of their particular data type, so too does each iterator type behave the same, but each iterator is used only with its own container type An iterator is not a pointer, but you will not go far wrong if you think of it and use it as if it were a pointer Like a pointer variable, an iterator variable is located at (points
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to) one data entry in the container You manipulate iterators using the following overloaded operators that apply to iterator objects: s Pre x and post x increment operators (++) for advancing the iterator to the next data item s Pre x and post x decrement operators (--) for moving the iterator to the previous data item s Equal and unequal operators (== and !=) to test whether two iterators point to the same data location s A dereferencing operator (*) so that if p is an iterator variable, then *p gives access to the data located at (pointed to by) p This access may be read only, write only, or allow both reading and changing of the data, depending on the particular container class Not all iterators have all of these operators However, the vector template class is an example of a container whose iterators have all these operators and more A container class has member functions that get the iterator process started After all, a new iterator variable is not located at (pointing to) any data in the container Many container classes, including the vector template class, have the following member functions that return iterator objects (iterator values) that point to special data elements in the data structure: s cbegin( ) returns an iterator for the container c that points to the rst data item in the container c s cend( ) returns something that can be used to test when an iterator has passed beyond the last data item in a container c The iterator cend( ) is completely analogous to NULL when used to test whether a pointer has passed the last node in a linked list of the kind discussed in 17 The iterator cend( ) is thus an iterator that is not located at a data item but that is a kind of end marker or sentinel For many container classes, these tools allow you to write for loops that cycle through all the elements in a container object c, as follows:
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//p is an iterator variable of the type for the container object c for (p = cbegin( ); p != cend( ); p++) process *p //*p is the current data item
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That s the big picture Now lets look at the details in the concrete setting of the vector template container class Display 191 illustrates the use of iterators with the vector template class Keep in mind that each container type in the STL has its own iterator types, although they are all used in the same basic ways The iterators we want for a vector of ints are of type
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