s ALTERNATE FORM FOR FUNCTION DECLARATIONS

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You are not required to list formal parameter names in a function declaration (function prototype) The following two function declarations are equivalent:

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double totalCost(int numberParameter, double priceParameter);

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double totalCost(int, double);

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We will usually use the rst form so that we can refer to the formal parameters in the comment that accompanies the function declaration However, you will often see the second form in manuals This alternate form applies only to function declarations A function de nition must always list the formal parameter names

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Programmer-Defined Functions

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ARGUMENTS

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WRONG ORDER

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When a function is called, the computer substitutes the first argument for the first formal parameter, the second argument for the second formal parameter, and so forth Although the computer checks the type of each argument, it does not check for reasonableness If you confuse the order of the arguments, the program will not do what you want it to do If there is a type violation due to an argument of the wrong type, then you will get an error message If there is no type violation, your program will probably run normally but produce an incorrect value for the value returned by the function

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Pitfall

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TERMS PARAMETER

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ARGUMENT

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The use of the terms formal parameter and argument that we follow in this book is consistent with common usage, but people also often use the terms parameter and argument interchangeably When you see the terms parameter and argument, you must determine their exact meaning from context Many people use the term parameter for both what we call formal parameters and what we call arguments Other people use the term argument both for what we call formal parameters and what we call arguments Do not expect consistency in how people use these two terms (In this book we sometimes use the term parameter to mean formal parameter, but this is more of an abbreviation than a true inconsistency)

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s FUNCTIONS CALLING FUNCTIONS

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A function body may contain a call to another function The situation for these sorts of function calls is the same as if the function call had occurred in the main part of the program; the only restriction is that the function declaration (or function de nition) must appear before the function is used If you set up your programs as we have been doing, this will happen automatically, since all function declarations come before the main part of the program and all function de nitions come after the main part of the program Although you may include a function call within the de nition of another function, you cannot place the de nition of one function within the body of another function de nition

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Example

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A ROUNDING FUNCTION

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The table of predefined functions (Display 32) does not include any function for rounding a number The functions ceil and floor are almost, but not quite, rounding functions The function ceil always returns the next-highest whole number (or its argument if it happens to be a whole number) So, ceil(21) returns 30, not 20 The function floor always returns the nearest whole number less than (or equal to) the argument So, floor(29) returns 20, not

Function Basics

round

30 Fortunately, it is easy to define a function that does true rounding The function is defined in Display 36 The function round rounds its argument to the nearest integer For example, round(23) returns 2, and round(26) returns 3

To see that round works correctly, let s look at some examples Consider round(24) The value returned is the following (converted to an int value):

floor(24 + 05)

which is floor(29), or 20 In fact, for any number that is greater than or equal to 20 and strictly less than 25, that number plus 05 will be less than 30, and so floor applied to that number plus 05 will return 20 Thus, round applied to any number that is greater than or equal to 20 and strictly less than 25 will return 2 (Since the function declaration for round specifies that the type for the value returned is int, we have type cast the computed value to the type int) Now consider numbers greater than or equal to 25; for example, 26 The value returned by the call round(26) is the following (converted to an int value):

floor(26 + 05)

which is floor(31), or 30 In fact, for any number that is greater than 25 and less than or equal to 30, that number plus 05 will be greater than 30 Thus, round called with any number that is greater than 25 and less than or equal to 30 will return 3 Thus, round works correctly for all arguments between 20 and 30 Clearly, there is nothing special about arguments between 20 and 30 A similar argument applies to all nonnegative numbers So, round works correctly for all nonnegative arguments

Display 36 The Function round (part 1 of 2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 #include <iostream> #include <cmath> using namespace std; int round(double number); //Assumes number >= 0 //Returns number rounded to the nearest integer int main( ) { double doubleValue; char ans; do { cout << "Enter a double value: "; cin >> doubleValue;