Iterators in Software

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Iterators
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Using an iterator, you can cycle through the items in a data structure ds as follows:
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for (i = dsbegin( ); i != dsend( ); i++) process *i //*i is the current data item
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where i is an iterator 19 discusses iterators with a few more items and re nements than these, but these will do for an introduction This abstract discussion will not come alive until we give an example So, let s walk through an example
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ITERATOR CLASS
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An iterator class typically has the following overloaded operators: ++, move to next item; --, move to previous item; ==, overloaded equality; !=, overloaded not-equal operator; and *, overloaded dereferencing operator that gives access to one data item The data structure corresponding to an iterator class typically has the following two member functions: begin( ), which returns an iterator that is located at ( points to ) the first item in the data structure; and end( ), which returns an iterator that can be used to test for having cycled through all items in the data structure If i is an iterator and i has been advanced beyond the last item in the data structure, then i should equal end( ) Using an iterator, you can cycle through the items in a data structure ds as follows:
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for (i = dsbegin( ); i != dsend( ); i++) process *i //*i is the current data item
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AN ITERATOR CLASS
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Display 1719 contains the definition of an iterator class that can be used for data structures, such as a stack or queue, that are based on a linked list We have placed the node class and the iterator class into a namespace of their own This makes sense, since the iterator is intimately related to the node class and since any class that uses this node class can also use the iterator class This iterator class does not have a decrement operator, because a definition of a decrement operator depends on the details of the linked list and does not depend solely on the type Node<T> (There is nothing wrong with having the definition of the iterator depend on the underlying linked list We have just decided to avoid this complication) As you can see, the template class ListIterator is essentially a pointer wrapped in a class so that it can have the needed member operators The definitions of the overload operators are straightforward and in fact so short that we have defined all of them as inline functions Note that
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Linked Data Structures
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Display 1719 An Iterator Class for Linked Lists (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 //This is the header file iteratorh This is the interface for the class //ListIterator, which is a template class for an iterator to use with linked //lists of items of type T This file also contains the node type for a //linked list #ifndef ITERATOR_H #define ITERATOR_H namespace ListNodeSavitch { template<class T> class Node { public: Node(T theData, Node<T>* theLink) : data(theData), link(theLink){} Node<T>* getLink( ) const { return link; } const T getData( ) const { return data; } void setData(const T& theData) { data = theData; } void setLink(Node<T>* pointer) { link = pointer; } private: T data; Node<T> *link; Note that the };
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template<class T> class ListIterator { public: ListIterator( ) : current(NULL) {}
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* produces the data
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member of the node, not the entire node This version does not allow you to change the data in the node
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ListIterator(Node<T>* initial) : current(initial) {} const T operator *( ) const { return current->getData( ); } //Precondition: Not equal to the default constructor object; //that is, current != NULL ListIterator operator ++( ) //Prefix form { current = current->getLink( ); return *this; } ListIterator operator ++(int) //Postfix form { ListIterator startVersion(current); current = current->getLink( );
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