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The basic ideas, and in fact the prototypical model, for iterators can easily be seen in the context of linked lists A linked list is one of the prototypical data structures, and a pointer is a prototypical example of an iterator You can use a pointer as an iterator by moving through the linked list one node at a time starting at the head of the list and cycling through all the nodes in the list The general outline is as follows:
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Node_Type *iterator; for (iterator = Head; iterator != NULL; iterator = iterator->Link) Do whatever you want with the node pointed to by iterator;
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where Head is a pointer to the head node of the linked list and Link is the name of the member variable of a node that points to the next node in the list For example, to output the data in all the nodes in a linked list of the kind we discussed in Section 171, you could use the following:
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IntNode *iterator; for(iterator = head; iterator != NULL; iterator = iterator->getLink( )) cout << (iterator->getData( ));
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The de nition of IntNode is given in Display 174 Note that you test to see if two pointers are pointing to the same node by comparing them with the equal operator, == A pointer is a memory address If two pointer variables contain the same memory address, then they compare as equal and they point to the same node Similarly, you can use != to compare two pointers to see if they do not point to the same node
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An iterator class is a more versatile and more general notion than a pointer It very often does have a pointer member variable as the heart of its data, as in the next programming example, but that is not required For example, the heart of the iterator might be an array index An iterator class has functions and overloaded operators that allow you to use pointer syntax with objects of the iterator class no matter what you use for the underlying data structure, node type, or basic location marker (pointer or array index or whatever) Moreover, it provides a general framework that can be used across a wide range of data structures An iterator class typically has the following overloaded operators: ++ Overloaded increment operator, which advances the iterator to the next item -- Overloaded decrement operator, which moves the iterator to the previous item == Overloaded equality operator to compare two iterators and return true if they both point to the same item != Overloaded not-equal operator to compare two iterators and return true if they do not point to the same item * Overloaded dereferencing operator that gives access to one item (Often it returns a reference to allow both read and write access) When thinking of this list of operators you can use a linked list as a concrete example In that case, remember that the items in the list are the data in the list, not the entire nodes and not the pointer members of the nodes Everything but the data items is implementation detail that is meant to be hidden from the programmer who uses the iterator and data structure classes An iterator is used in conjunction with some particular structure class that stores data items of some type The data structure class normally has the following member functions that provide iterators for objects of that class: begin( ): A member function that takes no argument and returns an iterator that is located at ( points to ) the rst item in the data structure end( ): A member function that takes no argument and returns an iterator that can be used to test for having cycled through all items in the data structure If i is an iterator and i has been advanced beyond the last item in the data structure, then i should equal end( )
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