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Display 1718 A Queue Template Class as a Friend of the Node Class (part 1 of 2)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 //This is the header file queueh This is the interface for the class //Queue, which is a template class for a queue of items of type T #ifndef QUEUE_H #define QUEUE_H namespace QueueSavitch { template<class T> class Queue;
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A forward declaration Do not forget the semicolon
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template<class T> class Node { public: Node(T theData, Node<T>* theLink) : data(theData), link(theLink){} friend class Queue<T>; private: T data; Node<T> *link; }; If Node<T> is only used in the definition of the friend class Queue<T>, there is no need for mutator or accessor template<class T> functions class Queue { <The definition of the template class Queue is identical to the one given in Display 1716 However, the
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This is an alternate approach to that given in Display 1716 In this version the Queue template class is a friend of the Node template class
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definitions of the member functions will be different from the ones we gave (in the Self-Test Exercises) for the nonfriend version of Queue>
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}//QueueSavitch #endif //QUEUE_H #include <iostream> The implementation file would contain these definitions #include <cstdlib> and the definitions of the other member functions #include <cstddef> similarly modified to allow access by name to the link #include "queueh" and data member variables of the nodes using std::cout; namespace QueueSavitch { template<class T> //Uses cstddef: void Queue<T>::add(T item) { if (isEmpty( ))
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Display 1718 A Queue Template Class as a Friend of the Node Class (part 2 of 2)
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40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 front = back = new Node<T>(item, NULL); else { back->link = new Node<T>(item, NULL); back = back->link; } }
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If efficiency is a major issue, you might want to use (front == NULL) instead of (isEmpty( )
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template<class T> //Uses cstdlib and iostream: T Queue<T>::remove( ) { if (isEmpty( )) { cout << "Error: Removing an item from an empty queue\n"; exit(1); } T result = front->data;
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Contrast these implementations with the ones given as the
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Node<T> *discard; answer to Self-Test Exercise 15 discard = front; front = front->link; if (front == NULL) //if you removed the last node back = NULL; delete discard; return result; } }//QueueSavitch
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Two approaches that serve pretty much the same purpose as friend classes and which can be used in pretty much the same way with classes and template classes such as Node and Queue are (1) using protected or private inheritance to derive Queue from Node, and (2) giving the de nition of Node within the de nition of Queue, so that Node is a local class (template) de nition (Protected inheritance is discussed in 14, and classes de ned locally within a class are discussed in 7)
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The white rabbit put on his spectacles Where shall I begin, please your Majesty he asked Begin at the beginning, the King said, very gravely, And go on till you come to the end: then stop
Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland
An important notion in data structures is that of an iterator An iterator is a construct (typically an object of some iterator class) that allows you to cycle through the data items stored in a data structure so that you can perform whatever action you want on each data item
iterator
ITERATOR
An iterator is a construct (typically an object of some iterator class) that allows you to cycle through the data items stored in a data structure so that you can perform whatever action you want on each data item in the data structure