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cin and cout are
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Similarly, if your program de nes an output stream named outStream that goes to another le, then you can output the value of the variable theNumber to this other le The following will output the string "theNumber is " followed by the contents of the variable theNumber to the output le that is connected to the stream outStream:
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outStream << "theNumber is " << theNumber << endl;
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Once the streams are connected to the desired les, your program can do le I/O the same way it does I/O using the keyboard and screen
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s FILE I/O
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The les we will use for I/O in this chapter are text les; that is, they are the same kind of les as those that contain your C++ programs When your program takes input from a le, it is said to be reading from the le; when your program sends output to a le, it is said to be writing to the le There are other ways of reading input from a le, but the method given in this subsection reads the le from the beginning to the end (or as far as the program gets before ending)
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Using this method, your program is not allowed to back up and read anything in the le a second time This is exactly what happens when your program takes input from the keyboard, so it should not seem new or strange (As we will see, your program can reread a le starting from the beginning of the le, but this is starting over, not backing up) Similarly, for the method presented here, your program writes output into a le starting at the beginning of the le and proceeding forward Your program is not allowed to back up and change any output that it has previously written to the le This is exactly what happens when your program sends output to the screen: You can send more output to the screen, but you cannot back up and change the screen output The way that you get input from a le into your program or send output from your program into a le is to connect your program to the le by means of a stream To send output to a le, your program must rst connect the le to a (stream) object of the class ofstream To read input from a le, your program must rst connect the le to a (stream) object of the class ifstream The classes ifstream and ofstream are de ned in the <fstream> library and placed in the std namespace Thus, to do both le input and le output, your program would contain
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<fstream> #include <fstream> using namespace std;
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#include <fstream> using std::ifstream; using std::ofstream;
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A stream must be declared just as you would declare any other class variable Thus, you can declare inStream to be an input stream for a le and outStream to be an output stream for another le as follows:
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ifstream inStream; ofstream outStream;
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connecting a stream to a file
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open
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Stream variables, such as inStream and outStream declared above, must each be connected to a le This is called opening the le and is done with the member function named open For example, suppose you want the input stream inStream connected to the le named infiletxt Your program must then contain the following before it reads any input from this le:
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inStreamopen("infiletxt");
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pathnames
You can specify a pathname (a directory or folder) when giving the le name The details of how to specify a pathname vary a little from system to system, so consult with a local guru for the details (or do a little trial-and-error programming) In our examples we will use simple le names, which assumes that the le is in the same directory (folder) as the one in which your program is running