EQUIVALENT while LOOP SYNTAX in Software

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Initialization_Action; while (Boolean_Expression) { Body_Statement Update_Action;
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EQUIVALENT EXAMPLE
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number = 100; while (number >= 0) { cout << number << " bottles of beer on the shelf\n"; number--; }
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SAMPLE DIALOGUE
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100 bottles of beer on the shelf 99 bottles of beer on the shelf 0 bottles of beer on the shelf
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for STATEMENT
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for (Initialization_Action; Boolean_Expression; Update_Action)
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Body_Statement
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for (sum = 0, n = 1; n <= 10; n++) sum = sum + n;
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See Display 27 for an explanation of the action of a for statement
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REPEAT-N-TIMES LOOPS
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A for statement can be used to produce a loop that repeats the loop body a predetermined number of times For example, the following is a loop body that repeats its loop body three times:
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for (int count = 1; count <= 3; count++) cout << "Hip, Hip, Hurray\n";
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The body of a for statement need not make any reference to a loop control variable, such as the variable count
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IN A for
STATEMENT
You normally do not place a semicolon after the parentheses at the beginning of a for loop To see what can happen, consider the following for loop:
for (int count = 1; count <= 10; count++); cout << "Hello\n";
Problem semicolon
If you did not notice the extra semicolon, you might expect this for loop to write Hello to the screen ten times If you do notice the semicolon, you might expect the compiler to issue an error message Neither of those things happens If you embed this for loop in a complete program, the compiler will not complain If you run the program, only one Hello will be output instead of ten Hellos What is happening To answer that question, we need a little background One way to create a statement in C++ is to put a semicolon after something If you put a semicolon after x++, you change the expression
Loops
into the statement
x++;
If you place a semicolon after nothing, you still create a statement Thus, the semicolon by itself is a statement, which is called the empty statement or the null statement The empty statement performs no action, but it still is a statement Therefore, the following is a complete and legitimate for loop, whose body is the empty statement:
for (int count = 1; count <= 10; count++);
empty statement
This for loop is indeed iterated ten times, but since the body is the empty statement, nothing happens when the body is iterated This loop does nothing, and it does nothing ten times! This same sort of problem can arise with a while loop Be careful not to place a semicolon after the closing parenthesis that encloses the Boolean expression at the start of a while loop A dowhile loop has just the opposite problem You must remember always to end a do-while loop with a semicolon
Pitfall
INFINITE LOOPS
A while loop, do-while loop, or for loop does not terminate as long as the controlling Boolean expression is true This Boolean expression normally contains a variable that will be changed by the loop body, and usually the value of this variable is changed in a way that eventually makes the Boolean expression false and therefore terminates the loop However, if you make a mistake and write your program so that the Boolean expression is always true, then the loop will run forever A loop that runs forever is called an infinite loop Unfortunately, examples of infinite loops are not hard to come by First let s describe a loop that does terminate The following C++ code will write out the positive even numbers less than 12 That is, it will output the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, one per line, and then the loop will end
x = 2; while (x != 12) { cout << x << endl; x = x + 2; }
infinite loop
The value of x is increased by 2 on each loop iteration until it reaches 12 At that point, the Boolean expression after the word while is no longer true, so the loop ends Now suppose you want to write out the odd numbers less than 12, rather than the even numbers You might mistakenly think that all you need do is change the initializing statement to
x = 1;