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The invocation of the member function input changes the values of the member variables in the calling object myAccount So the calling object behaves sort of like a call-byreference parameter; the function invocation can change the calling object Sometimes, you do not want to change the member variables of the calling object For example, the member function output should not change the values of the calling object s member variables You can use the const modi er to tell the compiler that a member function invocation should not change the calling object The modi er const applies to calling objects in the same way that it applies to parameters If you have a member function that should not change the value of a calling object, you can mark the function with the const modi er; the computer will then issue an error message if your function code inadvertently changes the value of the calling object In the case of a member function, the const goes at the end of the function declaration, just before the nal semicolon, as shown below:
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class BankAccount { public: void output( ) const;
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The modi er const should be used in both the function declaration and the function de nition, so the function de nition for output would begin as follows:
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void BankAccount::output( ) const {
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The remainder of the function de nition would be the same as in Display 72
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Use of the const modifier is an all-or-nothing proposition If you use const for one parameter of a particular type, then you should use it for every other parameter that has that type and that is not changed by the function call Moreover, if the type is a class type, then you should also use the const modifier for every member function that does not change the value of its calling object The reason has to do with function calls within function calls For example, consider the following definition of the function welcome:
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void welcome(const BankAccount& yourAccount) { cout << "Welcome to our bank\n" << "The status of your account is:\n"; yourAccountoutput( ); }
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If you do not add the const modifier to the function declaration for the member function output, then the function welcome will produce an error message The member function welcome does not change the calling object price However, when the compiler processes the function definition for welcome, it will think that welcome does (or at least might) change the value of
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If you place the modifier const before the type for a call-by-reference parameter, the parameter is called a constant parameter When you add the const you are telling the compiler that this parameter should not be changed If you make a mistake in your definition of the function so that it does change the constant parameter, then the compiler will give an error message Parameters of a class type that are not changed by the function ordinarily should be constant call-by-reference parameters rather than call-by-value parameters If a member function does not change the value of its calling object, then you can mark the function by adding the const modifier to the function declaration If you make a mistake in your definition of the function so that it does change the calling object and the function is marked with const, the computer will give an error message The const is placed at the end of the function declaration, just before the final semicolon The heading of the function definition should also have a const so that it matches the function declaration
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class Sample { public: Sample( ); void input( ); void output( ) const; private: int stuff; double moreStuff; }; int compare(const Sample& s1, const Sample& s2);
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Use of the const modifier is an all or nothing proposition You should use the const modifier whenever it is appropriate for a class parameter and whenever it is appropriate for a member function of the class If you do not use const every time that it is appropriate for a class, then you should never use it for that class
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