Nature of organizational buying in .NET

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Nature of organizational buying
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An organizational market, located at the opposite end of the consumer organization buyer spectrum, consists of all individuals and organizations that acquire products which are used in the manufacture of other products a demand derived from the demand for the nished products the organization produces In broad terms organizational buying is in uenced by factors in the environment, by the nature and structure of the organization itself and by the way the buying centre in the organization operates
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Complexity in organizational buying
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The complexity of the market for a product and the dif culties of marketing it should not be confused with the complexity or high technical content of the product itself To be useful from a marketing viewpoint the classi cation of industrial products should be on the basis of the ways the products are bought and serviced rather than on technical speci cations Determining the marketing complexity of the product forces the rm to adopt a marketing rather than a purely technical orientation when attempting to understand industrial buyer behaviour Marketing complexity may be measured as the extent of interaction which must exist between the seller and buyer to bring about a successful exchange In many cases the interaction can be extensive Six major areas may be identi ed where interaction can be high (Figure 25) The more extensive the interaction required, the greater the marketing complexity involved Understanding the technical dimensions of the product is essential but so also is understanding the buying process, the communication needs of buyers and the negotiation positions to adopt at the various stages of the buying process
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Product complexity and commercial uncertainty
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The buying responsibility in organizational markets is largely determined by product complexity and commercial uncertainty Product complexity refers
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[36] Strategic Marketing
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Product applications
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Patronage decision and negotiation Marketing complexity product commercial After-sales service
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Purchase frequency
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Technical specification Technical change
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Installation service and training
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Source: Adapted from Roy W Hill (1973) Marketing Technological Products to Industry, Oxford: Pergamon Press, p 34
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Figure [25] Marketing complexity in industrial markets
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to the relationship of product technology and the extent of the customer s technical knowledge It refers to issues such as product standardization, technical complexity, product-in-use experience, newness of application, ease of installation and the extent of after-sales service required Commercial uncertainty refers to business risk and its impact on future company pro ts It refers to the level of the investment, order size, length of commitment, adjustments required elsewhere in the company, the effect on pro tability and the ease with which the effect can be forecasted Where product complexity and commercial risk are low, the buyer usually carries out all the buying functions, while at the other extreme many people may be involved at different levels in the organization (Figure 26) When product complexity is high and commercial uncertainty is low, the technical staff tend to dominate the buying decision When the commercial risk is high and the product complexity is low, the buying decision becomes the responsibility of specialist buyers supported by the nance department
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Product complexity Low High Commercial uncertainty Low Purchasing department Directors, senior managers High All levels in the organization Design engineers, manufacturing operations
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Source: Adapted from L Fisher (1969) Understand industrial markets , 2 in Industrial Marketing, London: Business Books, pp 11 27
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Figure [26] Patterns of industrial buying in uence
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Focus on the customer [37]
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Buying process framework
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Although buying decisions in some circumstances can be quite complex, a simple stage model provides a useful framework for analysing buying behaviour in consumer and organizational markets and the marketing actions that are likely to be successful (Figure 27) One complexity is faced by the customer that of identifying a suitable product and seller simultaneously The individual buying process starts when customers recognize that a need exists; they are aware of a need The customer then proceeds through an additional three stages before arriving at a decision or outcome of the buying process In the next stage the customer attempts to identify the products that satisfy the need During the following stage the customer may wish to seek alternatives which could satisfy the need and may search for information about the alternatives available A suitable product readily available may satisfy the potential customer who is not curious about alternatives If the buyer decides to search for information, the organization takes an interest in the information sources used Simultaneously, the customer attempts to identify relevant sellers of the product of interest Information about sellers is collected and they are evaluated before a seller is chosen The following stage involves an evaluation of the alternatives available or shortlisted; the chosen seller s product is evaluated In this regard buyers differ in their approach to evaluation but a number of aspects are common Products or services are viewed by individuals as bundles of attributes Cars are seen as transport, safety, prestige, speed, carrying capacity Some attributes are more important than others so customers allocate importance weights to each
Awareness of need Identify products Acquire information about products Evaluate products Purchase products No Yes Use products Yes Complete satisfaction No Word of mouth Identify sellers Acquire information about sellers Evaluate sellers Choose sellers