DELETE), the host, the path, and the query parameters To ensure that the message to in Java

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be signed is consistent on both ends, the query parameters are put in sorted order by their keys The message containing all these pieces of information are put together and signed using a HMAC::SHA256 signer It s important to note that this method does not protect against replay attacks that is, listening in on a request and then reissuing it later To ensure some level of protection against a replay, you should include a time in the query parameters This can be checked on the server side to make sure that the time at which the request was signed is close to the time the server receives the request Amazon s API provides an example of where this method is used With a signature generator written, the next step is to write a sample client The client uses HmacSignature to create the signature and then executes to curl requests The first is done without the signature to verify that the server is indeed protected The second is done with the signature in the X-Auth-Sig header, which should ensure that the request is processed by the server:
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require 'rubygems' require 'cgi' require 'hmac_signature' verb = "GET" host = "localhost" path = "/" query_params = {"user" => "mat", "tag" => "ruby"} # The signature is generated and then CGI escaped # to ensure it travels appropriately over HTTP # The key used to sign the messages is "our-secret-key" unescaped_sig = HmacSignaturenew('our-secret-key'
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190 )sign(verb, host, path, query_params) sig = CGIescape(unescaped_sig) query_string = query_paramsmap do |k,v| [CGIescape(k), CGIescape(v)]join("=") endjoin("&")
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puts "Without Signature:" system %Q|curl -i "http://localhost:9292/ #{query_string}"| sleep 2 puts "\n\nWith Signature:" system %Q|curl -i -H "X-Auth-Sig: #{sig}" \ "http://localhost:9292/ #{query_string}"|
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The next step is to write a simple Rack adapter that will be used to protect the application This adapter will be initialized with the same secret key used by the client, our-secret-key If the signature is also being used to validate the client s identity, another header (such as X-Auth-User) should be added to the request by the client Then in signature_is_valid the header could be used to look up the appropriate secret to use when validating signatures from that client Here is an example that shows a rack module for performing signature validation:
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require 'hmac_signature' require 'cgi' module Rack class SignatureValidator def initialize(app, secret) @app = app @secret = secret @signer = HmacSignaturenew('our-secret-key') end def call(env) if signature_is_valid (env) @appcall(env)
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Authentication else [401, {"Content-Type" => "text/html"}, "Bad Signature"] end end
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def signature_is_valid (env) # Rack::Request will make it easier to pull # off the query params req = Rack::Requestnew(env) verb = env["REQUEST_METHOD"] host = env["REMOTE_HOST"] path = env["REQUEST_PATH"] time = reqparams["time"]
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# Rack appends HTTP_ to the header, so we do too sig = env["HTTP_X_AUTH_SIG"]
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# Verify the signature sig == @signersign(verb, host, path, reqparams) && (Timenow Timeat(time)) < 120 end end end
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The validator gets the HTTP verb, host, path, request time, and signature from the request It uses the verb, host, and path to sign the message using the same signer as the client It compares this generated signature with the signature that was passed in the request Finally, it ensures that the time value in the query string is within 120 seconds of the current time Note that the method assumes that the time query parameter is an integer that is, a Unix time epoch value generated when calling to_i on a Ruby time object The final step is to use Rack::SignatureValidator in a rackup configuration to protect the server The following example defines a simple Hello, World application
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and instantiates Rack::SignatureValidator with the key our-secret-key to protect it:
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require 'hmac_sig_validator' use Rack::SignatureValidator, 'our-secret-key' run Procnew { |env| [200, {"Content-Type" => "text/html"}, "Hello World! From Signature\n"] }
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This example assumes that all users will use the same key to sign requests This approach is practical only in a controlled setting where there are few clients, and all are highly trusted In many circumstances, it is better to give each client a unique key, which the server looks up on each request Amazon does this with the combination of the AWS access key ID and the AWS secret The server looks up the shared secret based on the access key ID and uses that to verify the request One of the problems with a shared secret is that the secret must actually be given to the client The next section discusses public/private key pairs, which provide a way around this deficiency at the cost of a more difficult implementation
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