C HAPTER 2 An Introduction to Service-Oriented Design in Java

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C HAPTER 2 An Introduction to Service-Oriented Design
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Service-oriented design is about creating systems that group functionality around logical function and business practices Services should be designed to be interoperable and reusable The goal of service-oriented design is to split up the parts of an application or system into components that can be iterated on, improved, and fixed without having to test and verify all the other components when an individual is updated Achieving these goals usually entails a trade-off between complexity and iteration speed However, large and mature applications are ill-served when built in Rails monolithic style It is necessary to segment complex or large applications into parts that can be tested and deployed separately This chapter explores the basic goals of serviceoriented design and design guidelines for splitting applications into separate services
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Organizations such as eBay, Amazon, LinkedIn, and other large web-based companies use layers of services to bring their applications together While many of these environments are based in Java, the advantages that come from their approaches to architecture design can be applied to web applications and systems written in Ruby The architecture of Amazon most exemplifies the advantages of good serviceoriented design In May 2006 the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) published an interview between Jim Gray and Amazon CTO Werner Vogels titled
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2 An Introduction to Service-Oriented Design
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A Conversation with Werner Vogels 1 In the interview Mr Vogels states that when a user goes to the Amazoncom home page, the application calls out to more than 100 services to construct the page Mr Vogels goes on to say that the move from a monolithic two-tier (database and web application) architecture to a service-oriented approach provides many advantages These include improvements such as scalability, isolation, and developer ownership of production systems Further, Vogels states that this has led to improved processes and increased organizational agility to develop new services and features Amazon s service-oriented architecture has enabled the introduction of new applications and services without requiring reconfiguration of the entire system Amazon s approach to its internal systems has driven and informed the development of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) platforms Every piece of the AWS architecture is exposed as a web service Here s a breakdown of Amazon s current services: S3 (Simple Storage Service) A service for storing files SQS (Simple Queue Service) A service-based messaging queue SimpleDB A scalable service-based database CloudFront A service-based content delivery network EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) A service for provisioning virtual private servers
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The AWS platform represents an example of low-level system components exposed through a services layer A service-oriented design can take advantage of these types of lower-level components as well as services that operate a little further up the stack that provide functionality for a specific application Higher-level services might include a user system, a comments service, a video transcoding service, and many others
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Service-Oriented Design Versus Service-Oriented Architecture Versus RESTful-Oriented Architecture
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There are many approaches to designing a service-oriented application This book takes an approach slightly different than those espoused in Java books on serviceoriented architecture (SOA) or even other books that focus on REST Within the community of professionals building service-based systems there is a bit of debate about the proper use of terminology and what qualifies as best practices
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O Hanlon, Charlene A Conversation with Werner Vogels ACM Queue Volume 4, Issue 4, May 2006, pp 14 22 http://queueacmorg/detailcfm id=1142065
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SOA has become a loaded term To many people, it implies the use of tools such as SOAP, WSDL, WS-*, or XML-RPC This implication is why the title of this book uses the word design as opposed to architecture Even so, this book does focus on architecture The real goal of service-oriented design is to create simple and agile services layers that can be consumed without the use of generators or strict schemas In this regard, the style in this book is more in line with REST-based web services than with SOA In the book RESTful Web Services, 2 Leonard Richardson and Sam Ruby discuss the details for a concept they call resource-oriented architecture (ROA) ROA represents their approach for HTTP-based RESTful design and architecture Richardson and Ruby lay out the concepts of resources, URIs, representations, and links They also state that ROA has properties of addressability, statelessness, and connectedness, as well as a uniform interface When it comes to the design of specific services, this book follows Richardson and Ruby s guidelines (The appendix, RESTful Primer, provides an overview of REST) The real difference between the focus of this book and that of RESTful Web Services lies in the interaction points that is, how services interact with each other to create a complete working application The focus of this book is on internal services instead of external ones While some of an application s services can be exposed to external consumers, their real purpose is to serve other developers working within a single organization In this regard, this book has more similarity to what one would commonly refer to as SOA This book also includes a more specific focus on deploying and developing with Rails, Sinatra, and other Ruby libraries and tools Of course, SOA, ROA, and RESTful are all meant as guidelines In the real world, it makes sense to flex a design with the needs of the application rather than adhere to the dogma of a prescribed approach such as REST or SOA This book takes a pragmatist s view and focuses on what these things mean for a Ruby environment that uses services as part of the core infrastructure for delivering an application or a web page to a user
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