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Let s begin by looking at a simple assembly load failure and examine the techniques available to us when troubleshooting assembly load failures We will use the same application as shown in Listings 4-1 and 4-2 where the primary assembly (04TypeCastexe) simply loads another assembly called 04Assemblydll Both files are located under the c:\adndbin directory Before running the application though, please rename the 04assemblydll to 04assemblyold When the rename is complete, we can proceed and execute the 04TypeCastexe assembly:
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C:\ADNDBin>04TypeCastexe Press any key to load into load from context Unhandled Exception: SystemIOFileNotFoundException: Could not load file or assembly 'file:///C:\ADNDBin\04assemblydll' or one of its dependencies The system cannot find the file specified File name: 'file:///C:\ADNDBin\04assemblydll at SystemReflectionAssembly_nLoad (AssemblyName fileName, String codeBase, Evidence assemblySecurity, Assembly locationHint, StackCrawlMark& stackMark, Boolean throwOnFileNotFound, Boolean forIntrospection) at SystemReflectionAssemblynLoad(AssemblyName fileName, String codeBase, Evidence assemblySecurity, Assembly locationHint, StackCrawlMark& stackMark, Boolean throwOnFileNotFound, Boolean forIntrospection) at SystemReflectionAssemblyInternalLoad(AssemblyName assemblyRef, Evidence assemblySecurity, StackCrawlMark& stackMark, Boolean forIntrospection) at SystemReflectionAssemblyInternalLoadFrom(String assemblyFile, Evidence
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securityEvidence, Byte[] hashValue, AssemblyHashAlgorithm hashAlgorithm, Boolean forIntrospection, StackCrawlMark& stackMark) at SystemReflectionAssemblyLoadFrom(String assemblyFile) at AdvancedNETDebugging4TypeCastMain(String[] args) in c:\Publishing\ADND\Code\4\TypeCast\04TypeCastcs:line 39 WRN: Assembly binding logging is turned OFF To enable assembly bind failure logging, set the registry value [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Fusion!EnableLog] (DWORD) to 1 Note: There is some performance penalty associated with assembly bind failure logging To turn this feature off, remove the registry value [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Fusion!EnableLog]
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In the output of the command, we see, not unexpectedly, that we get a FileNotFoundException Although the information displayed is useful, it s always best to see if we can glean some more information about the failure in the debugger rather than just rely on a stack trace Let s rerun the application under the debugger making sure we use the sxe 0xe0434f4d to stop on all CLR exceptions Listing 4-3 illustrates the debugger session Listing 4-3 Debugging the FileNotFoundException
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0:000> sxe 0xe0434f4d 0:000> g ModLoad: 75e70000 75f36000 C:\Windows\system32\ADVAPI32dll ModLoad: 76330000 763f3000 C:\Windows\system32\RPCRT4dll ModLoad: 79060000 790b6000 C:\Windows\MicrosoftNET\Framework\v2050727 \mscorjitdll Press any key to load into load from context ModLoad: 60340000 60348000 C:\Windows\MicrosoftNET\Framework\ v2050727\culturedll (d1c126c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance) (d1c126c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance) (d1c126c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance) (d1c126c): CLR exception - code e0434f4d (first chance) First chance exceptions are reported before any exception handling This exception may be expected and handled
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eax=0023efdc ebx=e0434f4d ecx=00000001 edx=00000000 esi=0023f064 edi=00345408 eip=773e42eb esp=0023efdc ebp=0023f02c iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na po nc cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000202 KERNEL32!RaiseException+0x58: 773e42eb c9 leave 0:000> kb ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child 0023f02c 79f071ac e0434f4d 00000001 00000001 KERNEL32!RaiseException+0x58 0023f08c 79f9293a 01c978f8 00000000 00000000 mscorwks!RaiseTheExceptionInternalOnly+0x2a8 0023f0c4 79f933b6 0023f180 0035f260 82cf8ddc mscorwks!UnwindAndContinueRethrowHelperAfterCatch+0x70 *** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for C:\Windows\assembly\NativeImages_v2050727_32\mscorlib\5b3e3b0551bcaa722c27dbb089c4 31e4\mscorlibnidll 0023f1fc 7937dd77 00000000 00000001 0023f284 mscorwks!AssemblyNative::Load+0x2d0 0023f2b0 79e7c74b 00000000 0023f2e8 0023f340 mscorlib_ni+0x2bdd77 0023f2c0 79e7c6cc 0023f390 00000000 0023f360 mscorwks!CallDescrWorker+0x33 0023f340 79e7c8e1 0023f390 00000000 0023f360 mscorwks!CallDescrWorkerWithHandler+0xa3 0023f478 79e7c783 002cc028 0023f540 0023f50c mscorwks!MethodDesc::CallDescr+0x19c 0023f494 79e7c90d 002cc028 0023f540 0023f50c mscorwks!MethodDesc::CallTargetWorker+0x1f 0023f4a8 79eefb9e 0023f50c 82cf8a2c 00000000 mscorwks!MethodDescCallSite::Call+0x18 0023f60c 79eef830 002c3028 00000001 0023f648 mscorwks!ClassLoader::RunMain+0x263 0023f874 79ef01da 00000000 82cf8164 00000001 mscorwks!Assembly::ExecuteMainMethod+0xa6 0023fd44 79fb9793 00290000 00000000 82cf81b4 mscorwks!SystemDomain::ExecuteMainMethod+0x43f 0023fd94 79fb96df 00290000 82cf81fc 00000000 mscorwks!ExecuteEXE+0x59 0023fddc 7900b1b3 00000000 79e70000 0023fdf8 mscorwks!_CorExeMain+0x15c 0023fdec 773e4911 7ffd7000 0023fe38 7725e4b6 mscoree!_CorExeMain+0x2c 0023fdf8 7725e4b6 7ffd7000 7a3b7683 00000000 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe 0023fe38 7725e489 7900b183 7ffd7000 00000000 ntdll!__RtlUserThreadStart+0x23 0023fe50 00000000 7900b183 7ffd7000 00000000 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x1b 0:000> loadby sos mscorwks 0:000> !PrintException 01c978f8 Exception object: 01c978f8 Exception type: SystemIOFileNotFoundException Message: Could not load file or assembly 'file:///C:\ADNDBin\04assemblydll' or one of its dependencies The system cannot find the file specified InnerException: <none> StackTrace (generated): <none> StackTraceString: <none> HResult: 80070002
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From Listing 4-3, we can see that we first resume execution of the application until the exception stops execution When it is stopped, we dump out the call stack to find the address of the managed exception from the first parameter to the second stack frame (mscorwks!RaiseTheExceptionInternalOnly) We then feed the address into the PrintException command to get further information Interestingly enough, the exception tells us some basic information about the failure (such as which assembly failed to load and the corresponding HRESULT)
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HOW DO I GET EXTENDED INFORMATION ON HRESULT VALUES The debuggers include a command called error that can be used to get a textual representation of an HRESULT Simply pass the HRESULT to the error command and it displays the information:
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0:000> !error 80070002 Error code: (HRESULT) 0x80070002 (2147942402) - The system cannot find the file specified
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The more interesting information is where the loader actually attempts to load the assembly from We already know one of the paths (c:\adndbin\ 04assemblydll) but it is possible that the assembly could be located where we expected the CLR to be able to load it from The question then becomes, can we ask the CLR loader to tell us the different probing paths it used while looking for the assembly The answer is yes and it comes in the form of what is known as assembly binding logging, which is a feature of the CLR that enables extensive tracing during the binding phase The binding logging feature is by default turned off and needs to be enabled The easiest way to enable the logging feature is to run the fuslogvwexe tool that comes with the NET 20 SDK It is located in the installation folder under the bin directory For example, on my machine, the tool is located under
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