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Each frame of the output is prefixed by xx: where xx specifies the frame number on the call stack The importance of the frame number in the output of the mk
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command becomes crucial in the next command that we will be discussing, which is the mdv command The mdv command outputs the local variables of any given frame By default, it outputs the variables of the topmost frame If we continue our example from earlier, running the mdv command, which displays the variables of the topmost frame (ntdll!KiFastSystemCallRet+0x0), yields the following:
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0:000> !mdv Frame 0x0: <Unmanaged Frame>
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The output makes perfect sense because the topmost frame is not a managed code frame The mdv command also takes the optional frame number as the parameter enabling us to narrow in on the managed frame of any given call stack output by the mk command For example, if we were interested in the variables of frame 8 (Main method of our NET application), we could use the following command:
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0:000> !mdv 8 Frame 0x8: (AdvancedNETDebugging3SimpleMain(SystemString[])): [P0]:args:0x1d75890 (SystemString[])
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The output of the command shows that the only variable available to us is the parameter to the Main method (located at address 0x1d75890) The mdv command also exposes the -w switch, which walks the entire call stack and dumps out all the arguments and local variables The final command is the mframe command, which allows you to set the current managed frame to be used by the mdt and mdv commands The mk, mdv, and mframe commands are an incredibly powerful trio to interrogate managed code call stacks and their respective states
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Object Inspection
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A super useful command in native code debugging is the dt command The dt command can display information about a local, global variable or a data type The SOSEX debugger extension introduces a similar command called the mdt command The mdt command has the syntax
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!mdt [typename | paramname | localname | MT] [ADDR] [-r]
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where the typename, paramname, and localname indicates the name of the type of interest (or alternatively the method table of the type) and the ADDR specifies the address of the object in question The r option means that the mdt command
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executes recursively, which can come in handy when an object encapsulates another object, which in turn encapsulates another object, and so on Rather than having to continuously issue the mdt command for each of the embedded objects, the r switch can be used The following is an example of using the mdt command on an address that corresponds to an instance of the ObjTypes type defined in 03ObjTypesexe:
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0:000> !mdt 0x1b06d64 01b06d64 (AdvancedNETDebugging3ObjTypes) coordinate:01b06d70 (AdvancedNETDebugging3ObjTypes+Coordinate) intArray:01b06e1c (SystemInt32[], Elements: 5) strArray:01b06e3c (SystemString[], Elements: 5)
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Here, we can see that the type instance contains a coordinate, an integer array, and a string array We already know that the coordinate member contains x, y, and z members To have the mdt command output those values as well, we can use the r switch:
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0:000> !mdt 0x1b06d64 -r 01b06d64 (AdvancedNETDebugging3ObjTypes) coordinate:01b06d70 (AdvancedNETDebugging3ObjTypes+Coordinate) xCord:0x64 (SystemInt32) yCord:0x64 (SystemInt32) zCord:0x80000000 (SystemInt32) intArray:01b06e1c (SystemInt32[], Elements: 5) strArray:01b06e3c (SystemString[], Elements: 5)
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Now we can clearly see the values of the coordinate member of the ObjTypes type
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A deadlock is a very common problem when dealing with multithreaded applications A high-level definition of a deadlock is when two threads fail to make any progress due to holding one synchronization primitive while waiting on a synchronization primitive to be released by the other thread The key to analysis deadlock scenarios is to correctly identify the threads involved as well as the synchronization primitives held by each thread A brute force and manual approach when identifying deadlocks is to dump out each thread in the process, analyze the call stack to see if it is stuck waiting for a lock, and record the information about the lock For each of the threads that is waiting for a lock, you would then find out which thread owns that particular lock and continue your investigation on that thread Eventually, you arrive at the