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Listing 3-11 Breaking into the 03ObjTypesexe instance (continued)
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vc80crt_1fc8b3b9a1e18e3b_80507271434_none_d08b6002442c891f\MSVCR80dll ModLoad: 76750000 7725f000 C:\Windows\system32\shell32dll ModLoad: 775f0000 77734000 C:\Windows\system32\ole32dll ModLoad: 790c0000 79bf6000 C:\Windows\assembly\NativeImages_v2050727_32 \mscorlib\5b3e3b0551bcaa722c27dbb089c431e4\mscorlibnidll ModLoad: 79060000 790b6000 C:\Windows\MicrosoftNET\Framework\v2050727 \mscorjitdll Press any key to continue (175812b4): Break instruction exception - code 80000003 (first chance) eax=7ffda000 ebx=00000000 ecx=00000000 edx=77bcd094 esi=00000000 edi=00000000 eip=77b87dfe esp=0419fed0 ebp=0419fefc iopl=0 nv up ei pl zr na pe nc cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000246 ntdll!DbgBreakPoint: 77b87dfe cc int 3 0:004> loadby sos mscorwks
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First, we would like to show the managed call stack and associated local variables We can use the ClrStack command to get this information, as shown in the following:
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0:004> !ClrStack -a OS Thread Id: 0x12b4 (4) Unable to walk the managed stack The current thread is likely not a managed thread You can run !threads to get a list of managed threads in the process 0:004>
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The ClrStack command displays an error stating that the current thread context is not a valid managed thread Because we manually broke execution, the thread context of the debugger is on the debugger thread, which is a native thread, and we are forced to first switch to the managed thread context before running the ClrStack command Let s use the ~ command to switch the context to thread 0 and try the ClrStack command again:
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0:004> ~0s eax=0012ed24 ebx=0012ed1c ecx=792274ec edx=79ec9058 esi=0012eb78 edi=00000000 eip=77b99a94 esp=0012eb28 ebp=0012eb48 iopl=0 nv up ei pl zr na pe nc cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000246 ntdll!KiFastSystemCallRet: 77b99a94 c3 ret 0:000> !ClrStack -a OS Thread Id: 0x10b4 (0) ESP EIP
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0012ecf4 77b99a94 [NDirectMethodFrameSlim: 0012ecf4] MicrosoftWin32Win32NativeReadConsoleInput (IntPtr, InputRecord ByRef, Int32, Int32 ByRef) 0012ed0c 793e8f28 SystemConsoleReadKey(Boolean) PARAMETERS: intercept = 0x00000000 LOCALS: <no data> 0x0012ed1c = 0x00000001 <no data> <no data> <no data> <no data> <no data> <no data> <no data> <no data> 0012ed4c 793e8e33 SystemConsoleReadKey() 0012ed50 002c00c1 AdvancedNETDebugging3ObjTypesMain(SystemString[]) PARAMETERS: args = 0x01b958ac LOCALS: 0x0012ed54 = 0x00000064 <CLR reg> = 0x00000000 0012ef94 79e7c74b [GCFrame: 0012ef94]
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This time, the ClrStack command displayed the stack trace for our managed thread including the local variables and parameters associated with each frame The frame of interest in the call stack is the Main frame and more specifically the local variable at address 0x0012ed54 Because we don t know whether the local variable points to a reference type or simply a value type on the stack, we can use the DumpObj command to see if it properly identifies the address as a reference to a managed heap object:
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0:000> !DumpObj 0x0012ed54 <Note: this object has an invalid CLASS field> Invalid object
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The result of DumpObj clearly indicates that the address does not correspond to a reference type and we are left to assume that the address is, in fact, a value type To further convince ourselves that that is the case, we can glance at the address itself
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Remember that value types are stored on the stack and, as such, any address that is located around the current stack pointer would be a good indication that we are dealing with a value type If we dump out the registers using the r command, we can take a look at the esp register (which is the current stack pointer):
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0:000> r eax=0012ed24 ebx=0012ed1c ecx=792274ec edx=79ec9058 esi=0012eb78 edi=00000000 eip=77b99a94 esp=0012eb28 ebp=0012eb48 iopl=0 nv up ei pl zr na pe nc cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000246 ntdll!KiFastSystemCallRet: 77b99a94 c3 ret
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The esp register contains the value 0x0012eb28, which is in close proximity to the address we were investigating: 0x0012ed54 At this point, we can safely conclude that the address we are looking at is, in fact, a stack-based address and more than likely a value type Now, we can use the dd command to display the raw memory associated with the value type: