Debugging Out of Memory Exceptions in Visual Studio .NET

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Debugging Out of Memory Exceptions
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5 MANAGED HEAP AND GARBAGE COLLECTION
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Figure 5-18 Monitoring 05OOMexe current assemblies and bytes in loader heap
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performance counters
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As discussed earlier, to get further information on the managed exception, we can use the PrintException command:
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0:000> kb ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child 0027ed7c 79f071ac e0434f4d 00000001 00000001 kernel32!RaiseException+0x58 0027eddc 79f0a780 51e10dac 00000001 00000000 mscorwks!RaiseTheExceptionInternalOnly+0x2a8 *** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for Systemnidll 0027ee80 7a53e025 0027f14c 79f0a3d9 0027f338 mscorwks!JIT_Rethrow+0xbf 0027ef4c 7a53d665 51df597c 00000000 51de0050 System_ni+0xfe025 0027ef80 7a4d078a 51df597c 51de0050 638fcb39 System_ni+0xfd665 *** WARNING: Unable to verify checksum for SystemXmlnidll 0027efec 638fb6e5 00000000 51de02cc 00000000 System_ni+0x9078a
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0027f078 638fa683 51ddff88 00000000 51de02cc System_Xml_ni+0x15b6e5 0027f09c 63960d09 00000000 00000000 00000000 System_Xml_ni+0x15a683 0027f0c4 6396090c 00000000 00000000 00000000 System_Xml_ni+0x1c0d09 0027f120 79e7c74b 00000000 0027f158 0027f1b0 System_Xml_ni+0x1c090c 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 mscorwks!CallDescrWorker+0x33 0:000> !PrintException 51e10dac Exception object: 51e10dac Exception type: SystemOutOfMemoryException Message: <none> InnerException: <none> StackTrace (generated): SP IP Function 0027EE94 7942385A mscorlib_ni!SystemReflectionAssemblyLoad (Byte[], Byte[], SystemSecurityPolicyEvidence)+0x3a 0027EEB0 7A4BF513 System_ni!MicrosoftCSharpCSharpCodeGeneratorFromFileBatch (SystemCodeDomCompilerCompilerParameters, SystemString[])+0x3ab 0027EF00 7A53E025 System_ni!MicrosoftCSharpCSharpCodeGeneratorFromSourceBatch (SystemCodeDomCompilerCompilerParameters, SystemString[])+0x1f1 0027EF58 7A53D665 System_ni!MicrosoftCSharpCSharpCodeGeneratorSystemCodeDom CompilerICodeCompilerCompileAssemblyFromSourceBatch (SystemCodeDomCompilerCompilerParameters, SystemString[])+0x29 0027EF8C 7A4D078A System_ni!SystemCodeDomCompilerCodeDomProvider CompileAssemblyFromSource(SystemCodeDomCompilerCompilerParameters, SystemString[])+0x16 0027EF98 638FCB39 System_Xml_ni!SystemXmlSerializationCompilerCompile (SystemReflectionAssembly, SystemString, SystemXmlSerializationXmlSerializerCompilerParameters, SystemSecurityPolicyEvidence)+0x269 0027F000 638FB6E5 System_Xml_ni!SystemXmlSerializationTempAssemblyGenerateAssembly (SystemXmlSerializationXmlMapping[], SystemType[], SystemString, SystemSecurityPolicyEvidence, SystemXmlSerializationXmlSerializerCompilerParameters, SystemReflectionAssembly, SystemCollectionsHashtable)+0x7e9 0027F094 638FA683 System_Xml_ni!SystemXmlSerializationTempAssemblyctor (SystemXmlSerializationXmlMapping[], SystemType[], SystemString, SystemString, SystemSecurityPolicyEvidence)+0x4b 0027F0B4 63960D09 System_Xml_ni!SystemXmlSerializationXmlSerializerctor (SystemType, SystemXmlSerializationXmlAttributeOverrides, SystemType[], SystemXmlSerializationXmlRootAttribute, SystemString, SystemString, SystemSecurityPolicyEvidence)+0xed 0027F0E4 6396090C System_Xml_ni!SystemXmlSerializationXmlSerializerctor (SystemType, SystemXmlSerializationXmlRootAttribute)+0x28 0027F0F4 009201D6 05OOM!AdvancedNETDebugging5OOMRun()+0xe6 0027F118 009200A7 05OOM!AdvancedNETDebugging5OOMMain(SystemString[])+0x37
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StackTraceString: <none> HResult: 8007000e There are nested exceptions on this thread Run with -nested for details
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At this point, the application has already failed and we can t rely on runtime monitoring tools to gauge the application s memory usage In situations like this, we have to rely solely on the debugger commands to analyze where the memory is being consumed Unfortunately, there is no single cookbook recipe on the exact commands and steps to take, but as a general rule of thumb, utilizing the various diagnostics commands (such as eeheap, dumpheap, dumpdomain, etc) can give invaluable clues as to where in the CLR the memory is being consumed The excessive memory consumption can, of course, also be as a result of a native code leak, which we will see an example of in 7, Interoperability
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Immediately Break on OutOfMemoryException
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5 MANAGED HEAP AND GARBAGE COLLECTION
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When a process gets into a situation where it is running out of memory, things can get very tricky and the application may not be able to properly handle the condition Because an OutOfMemoryException gets propagated up the chain and does not fault the process until the exception is deemed unhandled, a lot of code may still get executed as part of the unwinding making troubleshooting more difficult in certain situations Furthermore, if the code is hosted in a process that it does not own, the process may catch all kinds of exceptions and continue running To ensure that an OutOfMemoryException always breaks under the debugger, the CLR introduced a registry value called GCBreakOnOOM (DWORD) under the following registry path: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework The value can be set to 1, in which case an event log message is logged; it can be set to 2, in which case the out of memory condition causes a break in the debugger; or it can be set to 4, in which case a more extensive event log is written that includes memory statistics at the point where the out of memory condition was encountered
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Effective debugging of tricky application problems in the managed heap and garbage collector requires a solid internal understanding of how these components work In this chapter, we took a detailed tour of how the CLR heap manager and garbage collector functions We started by looking at the high-level architecture and how the
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CLR heap manager fits into the overall Windows memory architecture followed by an in-depth discussion of the various concepts (generations, roots, finalization, etc) utilized by the garbage collector Sample code was shown in tandem with the debugger and associated tools to illustrate how these concepts work in practice Lastly, we looked at a number of examples of common programming mistakes and how they manifest themselves in the CLR The examples included how to track down the source of heap corruptions on the managed heap, how to track down the source of out-of-memory situations, and how to debug faulty finalization code
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