Transforms in Java

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You can apply five different types of transform to a node: translation, rotation, scaling, shearing, and an affine transform, which is a generalization of the other four typesThe Node class has several variables that allow you to specify the transforms to be applied These variables are listed in Table 17-1
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17 Coordinates, Transforms, and Layout
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Table 17-1 Variable
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rotate
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Transform-Related Variables of the Node Class Type
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The angle through which the node is to be rotated about its center point A positive value produces a clockwise rotation The axis about which the rotation takes place The amount by which the node is to be scaled along the x-axis The amount by which the node is to be scaled along the y-axis The amount by which the node is to be scaled along the z-axis A set of transformations The distance along the x-axis by which the node s origin is to be moved The distance along the y-axis by which the node s origin is to be moved The distance along the z-axis by which the node s origin is to be moved
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scaleY
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transforms
Transform[]
Empty
translateX or layoutX
Number
translateY or layoutY
Number
translateZ
Number
In some cases, there is more than one way to apply a transform to a node Rotation, scaling, and translation can be performed either by assigning values to the corresponding
Transforms
variables from Table 17-1 or by adding an element to the transforms sequence Shearing and arbitrary affine transforms are only possible through the transforms variable As you ll see in the sections that follow, the effect of a transform that is applied through the dedicated node variables is not necessarily the same as one that appears in the transforms sequence Transforms are represented by subclasses of the javafxscenetransformTransform classAs well as being the base class for transforms, Transform has script functions that can be used to obtain instances of concrete Transform objects For example, if you want to apply a rotation via the transforms variable of a node, you have the choice of either creating and initializing an instance of the Rotate class by using an object literal or getting one by calling the rotate() function of the Transform classThe choice is largely a matter of taste In the sections that follow, we discuss the five available transforms and the effect that each of them has on a node In most cases, a transform is explained by demonstrating its effect on a rectangle that is initially defined using the following code:
Rectangle { x: 30 y: 60 width: 100 height: 40 fill: ColorYELLOW }
This untransformed rectangle is shown in Figure 17-1 So that you can see exactly how each transform affects it, a coordinate grid with the same transform applied has been added to the sceneThe grid is drawn by a custom node, the implementation of which is shown in 25
Figure 17-1
An untransformed rectangle
17 Coordinates, Transforms, and Layout
Translation
Translation has the effect of moving a node a specified distance relative to the scene or to its containing parent node (that is, Group or Container) One way to apply a translation to a node is by using its translateX, translateY, and translateZ variables Here s an example that moves the rectangle shown in Figure 17-1 by 30 pixels horizontally and 40 pixels vertically, the result of which is shown in Figure 17-2:
Rectangle { x: 30 y: 60 width: 100 height: 40 fill: ColorYELLOW translateX: 30 translateY: 40 }
Note
You can also perform a translation by setting a node s layoutX and layoutY variables These work in exactly the same way as translateX and translateY If you set both pairs of variables, the effect is to translate the node by a distance translateX + layoutX along the x-axis and by translateY + layoutY along the y-axis As you ll see later in this chapter, layoutX and layoutY are conventionally used by containers to position nodes according to their specific layout policy, whereas translateX and translateY are used when a node is in a group (which does not perform automatic positioning of nodes) or to move the node relative to its assigned location in a container The translateX and translateY variables are also manipulated by the PathTransition class, which we ll discuss in 18, Animation
Translating a node doesn t move it relative to the origin of its own coordinate system Instead, it creates a new coordinate system for the node that is offset from the original by the amount of the translation In Figure 17-2, the original coordinate system that of the scene is represented by the lighter grid, and the new coordinate system of the rectangle is indicated
Figure 17-2