Shapes, Text, and Images in Java

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16 Shapes, Text, and Images
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SVGPath
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The SVGPath class creates a shape from path data in the format defined by the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) specification, which you can find at http://wwww3org/TR/ SVG/ Discussion of SVG is beyond the scope of this book, so we ll confine ourselves to an example that demonstrates how to use this class The following code, which you can find in the file javafxshapes/AnSVGPathfx, draws the same five-pointed star that results from the path object in Listing 16-7:
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Stage { title: "SVGPath" scene: Scene { width: 200 height: 200 content: SVGPath { fill: null stroke: ColorBLACK content: "M 10 60 h 180 l -150 110 60 -160 80 160 z" } } }
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An SVG path definition is a string consisting of single-letter commands followed by parametersThe path definition is the value of the content variable of the SVGPath object Here, the command begins with M 10 60, which is equivalent to MoveTo (10, 60), followed by h 180, which is the same as HLineTo with x = 180 and relative coordinates, and so onYou can use this class to make any SVG path definition a part of your scene graph
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Stroking and Filling Shapes
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So far in this book, we have used a single-pixel, solid line to draw the outline of a shape In this section, you ll see how to set the width and pattern of the outline, and how to determine which parts of a shape that has intersecting sides are actually filled
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The appearance of the outline of a shape is controlled by the seven variables listed in Table 16-12You have already seen the stroke variable, which determines the color (or color gradient) used to draw the outline In this section, we discuss the effect of the other six variables
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Table 16-12 Variable
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stroke strokeWidth
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Shape Variables That Control Outline Drawing Type
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Paint Number
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Access
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RW RW
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Default
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See text
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Description
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The Paint used to stroke the outline of the Shape The width of the outline stroke, in pixels
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(Continued) Variable
strokeDashArray strokeDashOffset
Type
Number[] Number
Access
RW RW
Default
[10] 0
Description
Determines where there are gaps in the outline Specifies the distance into strokeDashArray that applies to the first point of the outline Determines how the ends of the stroke outline are drawn Specifies how the points at which lines meet are to be drawn Limits the length of a miter join
strokeLineCap strokeLineJoin
Stroke LineCap Stroke LineJoin Number
RW RW
SQUARE MITER
strokeMiterLimit
Stroke Width and Line Endings The strokeWidth variable sets the width of the shape s outline By default, this is 1 pixel The following code, which comes from the file javafxshapes/WideLinesfx, draws a vertical line that is 10 pixels wide, as shown on the left of Figure 16-13
Line { startX: 20 startY: 20 endX: 20 endY: 180 strokeWidth: 10 }
Figure 16-13
Wide lines and line caps
You might expect that this line would be 160 pixels long, but it is, in fact, slightly longer It is actually extended at both ends by 5 pixels, because the variable strokeLineCap has its default value of StrokeLineCapSQUARE, which causes a square
16 Shapes, Text, and Images
cap that is half as long as the width of the line to be added at both ends of the line For thin lines, this makes no real difference, but its effect becomes more pronounced when you make the line wider The reason for adding this cap is that if you were to construct a right-angled corner by joining two lines together and the lines were not extended, you would otherwise see a gap at the cornerYou can simulate this effect by setting strokeLineCap to the value StrokeLineCapBUTT, which draws a line that starts and ends exactly at the specified points, as shown in the middle of Figure 16-13The result of drawing two lines that have this strokeLineCap value and start at the same point is shown in Figure 16-14The extra pixels added by the default strokeLineCap setting would fill this ugly gap
Figure 16-14 Joining two lines with strokeLineCap set to StrokeLineCapBUTT
The third possible value for the strokeLineCap variable, StrokeLineCapROUND, also causes extra pixels to be added at both ends of the lines, but in this case they are arranged so as to give the impression of a rounded end, as shown on the right of Figure 16-13 Although the examples you have seen so far demonstrate the use of strokeLineCap with straight lines, this variable actually applies to the ending points of any shape, as demonstrated in Figure 16-15, which shows an arc and an unclosed path that both have this variable set to StrokeLineCapROUND
Figure 16-15