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Section: DJ Discovery and Join
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DJ5 LookupLocator Class
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The LookupLocator class provides a simple interface for performing unicast discovery:
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package netjinicorediscovery; import import import import javaioIOException; javaioSerializable; javanetMalformedURLException; netjinicorelookupServiceRegistrar;
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public class LookupLocator implements Serializable { public LookupLocator(String host, int port) {} public LookupLocator(String url) throws MalformedURLException {} public String getHost() {} public int getPort() {} public ServiceRegistrar getRegistrar() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {} public ServiceRegistrar getRegistrar(int timeout) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {} }
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Each constructor takes parameters that allow the object to determine what IP address and TCP port number it should connect to The first form takes a host name and port number The second form takes what should be a jini scheme URL If the URL is invalid, it throws a javanetMalformedURLException Neither constructor performs the unicast discovery protocol, nor does either resolve the host name passed as argument The getHost method returns the name of the host with which this object attempts to perform unicast discovery, and the getPort method returns the TCP port at that host to which this object connects The equals method returns true if both instances have the same host and port There are two forms of getRegistrar method Each performs unicast discovery and returns an instance of the proxy for the specified lookup service, or throws either a javaioIOException or a javalangClassNotFoundException if a problem occurs during the discovery protocol Each method performs unicast discovery every time it is called The form of this method that takes a timeout parameter will throw a javaioInterruptedIOException if it blocks for more than timeout milliseconds while waiting for a response A similar timeout is implied for the no arg form of this method, but the value of the timeout in milliseconds may be specified globally using the netjinidiscoverytimeout system property, with a default equal to 60 seconds DJ51 Jini Technology URL Syntax While the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) specification merely demands that a URL be of the form protocol:data, standard URL syntaxes tend to take one of two forms: protocol://host/data protocol://host:port/data The protocol component of a Jini technology URL is, not surprisingly, jini The host name component of the URL is an ordinary DNS name or IP address If the DNS name resolves to multiple IP addresses, it is assumed that a lookup service for the same djinn lives at each address If no port number DJ5 LookupLocator Class 84
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O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition is specified, the default is 4160
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[2] [2]
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If you speak hexadecimal, you will notice that 4160 is the decimal representation of (CAFE BABE) The URL has no data component, since the lookup service is generally not searchable by name As a result, a Jini technology URL ends up looking like
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jini://exampleorg
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with the port defaulting to 4160 since it is not provided explicitly, or, to indicate a non default port,
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jini://examplecom:4162
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Section: Part 2: Specifications
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EN Entry
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Section EN1 Entries and Templates
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EN Entry
O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition
Section: EN Entry
EN1 Entries and Templates
Entries are designed to be used in distributed algorithms for which exact match lookup semantics are useful An entry is a typed set of objects, each of which may be tested for exact match with a template EN11 Operations A service that uses entries will support methods that let you use entry objects In this document we will use the term "operation" for such methods There are three types of operations: Store operations operations that store one or more entries, usually for future matches Match operations operations that search for entries that match one or more templates Fetch operations operations that return one or more entries It is possible for a single method to provide more than one of the operation types For example, consider a method that returns an entry that matches a given template Such a method can be logically split into two operation types (match and fetch), so any statements made in this specification about either operation type would apply to the appropriate part of the method's behavior EN12 Entry An entry is a typed group of object references represented by a class that implements the marker interface netjinicoreentryEntry Two different entries have the same type if and only if they are of the same class
package netjinicoreentry; public interface Entry extends javaioSerializable { }
For the purpose of this specification, the term "field" when applied to an entry will mean fields that are public, non static, non transient, and non final Other fields of an entry are not affected by entry operations In particular, when an entry object is created and filled in by a fetch operation, only the public non static, non transient, and non final fields of the entry are set Other fields are not affected, except as set by the class's no arg constructor Each Entry class must provide a public no arg constructor Entries may not have fields of primitive type (int, boolean, etc), although the objects they refer to may have primitive fields and non public fields For any type of operation, an attempt to use a malformed entry type that has primitive fields or does not have a no arg constructor throws IllegalArgumentException EN13 Serializing Entry Objects Entry objects are typically not stored directly by an entry using service (one that supports one or more entry operations) The client of the service will typically turn an Entry into an implementation specific representation that includes a serialized form of the entry's class and each of the entry's fields (This transformation is typically not explicit but is done by a client side proxy object for the remote service) It is these implementation specific forms that are typically stored and retrieved from the service These forms are not directly visible to the client, but their existence has important effects on the operational contract The semantics of this section apply to all operation types, whether the above assumptions are true or not for a particular service EN1 Entries and Templates 87
O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition Each entry has its fields serialized separately In other words, if two fields of the entry refer to the same object (directly or indirectly), the serialized form that is compared for each field will have a separate copy of that object This is true only of different fields of an entry; if an object graph of a particular field refers to the same object twice, the graph will be serialized and reconstituted with a single copy of that object A fetch operation returns an entry that has been created by using the entry type's no arg constructor, and whose fields have been filled in from such a serialized form Thus, if two fields, directly or indirectly, refer to the same underlying object, the fetched entry will have independent copies of the original underlying object This behavior, although not obvious, is both logically correct and practically advantageous Logically, the fields can refer to object graphs, but the entry is not itself a graph of objects and so should not be reconstructed as one An entry (relative to the service) is a set of separate fields, not a unit of its own From a practical standpoint, viewing an entry as a single graph of objects requires a matching service to parse and understand the serialized form, because the ordering of objects in the written entry will be different from that in a template that can match it The serialized form for each field is a javarmiMarshalledObject object instance, which provides an equals method that conforms to the above matching semantics for a field MarshalledObject also attaches a codebase to class descriptions in the serialized form, so classes written as part of an entry can be downloaded by a client when they are retrieved from the service In a store operation, the class of the entry type itself is also written with a MarshalledObject, ensuring that it, too, may be downloaded from a codebase EN14 UnusableEntryException A netjinicoreentryUnusableEntryException will be thrown if the serialized fields of an entry being fetched cannot be deserialized for any reason:
package netjinicoreentry; public class UnusableEntryException extends Exception { public Entry partialEntry; public String[] unusableFields; public Throwable[] nestedExceptions; public UnusableEntryException(Entry partial, String[] badFields, Throwable[] exceptions) {} public UnusableEntryException(Throwable e) {} }
The partialEntry field will refer to an entry of the type that would have been fetched, with all the usable fields filled in Fields whose deserialization caused an exception will be null and have their names listed in the unusableFields string array For each element in unusableFields the corresponding element of nestedExceptions will refer to the exception that caused the field to fail deserialization If the retrieved entry is corrupt in such a way as to prevent even an attempt at field deserialization (such as being unable to load the exact class for the entry), partialEntry and unusableFields will both be null, and nestedExceptions will be a single element array with the offending exception The kinds of exceptions that can show up in nestedExceptions are: ClassNotFoundException: The class of an object that was serialized cannot be found InstantiationException: An object could not be created for a given type IllegalAccessException: The field in the entry was either inaccessible or final javaioObjectStreamException: The field could not be deserialized because of object stream problems javarmiRemoteException: When a RemoteException is the nested exception of an UnusableEntryException, it means that a remote reference in the entry's state is no EN1 Entries and Templates 88
O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition longer valid (more below) Remote errors associated with a method that is a fetch operation (such as being unable to contact a remote server) are not reflected by UnusableEntryException but in some other way defined by the method (typically by the method throwing RemoteException itself) Generally speaking, storing a remote reference to a non persistent remote object in an entry is risky Because entries are stored in serialized form, entries stored in an entry based service will typically not participate in the garbage collection that keeps such references valid However, if the reference is not persistent because the referenced server does not export persistent references, that garbage collection is the only way to ensure the ongoing validity of a remote reference If a field contains a reference to a non persistent remote object, either directly or indirectly, it is possible that the reference will no longer be valid when it is deserialized In such a case the client code must decide whether to remove the entry from the entry fetching service, to store the entry back into the service, or to leave the service as it is In the Java 2 platform, activatable object references fit this need for persistent references If you do not use a persistent type, you will have to handle the above problems with remote references You may choose instead to have your entries store information sufficient to look up the current reference rather than putting actual references into the entry EN15 Templates and Matching Match operations use entry objects of a given type, whose fields can either have values (references to objects) or wildcards (null references) When considering a template T as a potential match against an entry E, fields with values in T must be matched exactly by the value in the same field of E Wildcards in T match any value in the same field of E The type of E must be that of T or be a subtype of the type of T, in which case all fields added by the subtype are considered to be wildcards This enables a template to match entries of any of its subtypes If the matching is coupled with a fetch operation, the fetched entry must have the type of E The values of two fields match if MarshalledObjectequals returns true for their MarshalledObject instances This will happen if the bytes generated by their serialized form match, ignoring differences of serialization stream implementation (such as blocking factors for buffering) Class version differences that change the bytes generated by serialization will cause objects not to match Neither entries nor their fields are matched using the Objectequals method or any other form of type specific value matching You can store an entry that has a null valued field, but you cannot match explicitly on a null value in that field, because null signals a wildcard field If you have a field in an entry that may be variously null or not, you can set the field to null in your entry If you need to write templates that distinguish between set and unset values for that field, you can (for example) add a Boolean field that indicates whether the field is set and use a Boolean value for that field in templates An entry that has no wildcards is a valid template Serialized Form